Wednesday, September 26, 2012

ANCIENT TRADITIONS

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"SHAMBHALA...."In 624 AD, a Moslem invasion weakened the Kingdom of Shambhala."(Roerich: 1974..pg 753) (Geoffrey Hopkins: 1985..pg 60)

In 624 AD the Sassian Shah Yazdigird is defeated by the Arabs at the battle of Nahavand....."in the era of the Mlecchas, the starting year of the Kalacakra chronology is the first year of the Hijra, calculated from the year 624 AD."..(Roerich:1949...pg 753)....

The Turkic Ghaznavids conquered Kabul in the 980s. It was at about this time that the Kalachakra teachings openly appeared in India, transmitted in visions to two Indian masters attempting to reach Shambhala. Although the Muslim Ghaznavids tolerated Buddhism and Hinduism in Kabul, they smashed the Ismaili Islamic state of Multan in north central Pakistan in 1008. The Ismaili Fatimids in Egypt were the rivals of the Ghaznavids for supremacy over the entire Muslim world. After this victory, the Ghaznavad ruler Mahmud of Ghazni, driven undoubtedly by greed for more land and wealth, pressed his invasion further eastward as far as Madhura, south of Delhi. He looted and destroyed the wealthy Buddhist monasteries that lay in his path. When the Ghaznavad troops pushed northward from Delhi, however, and tried to invade Kashmir, the Kashmiri King Samgrama Raja, a supporter of both Buddhism and Hinduism, defeated them in 1021. This was the first attack on Kashmir by a Muslim army. The Kalachakra Tantra reached Tibet from Kashmir in 1027, the year predicted by the First Kalki.

The 7 dharmaraajas and 25 rigdens, bodhisattvas and wrathful kings, are 32 emanations, and as for the last seat, there are 32 generations of seat holders and 25 rigdens. Jamyang Rigden Drakpa himself again is the asura conquering all the Lalo enemies with lives of 100 years, having in his hand a wheel. Grasping a wheel in his hand he rises. As for Lalo taming rigdens, those to be conquered are the Lalos. Why so? The way of arising of the Lalo teacher and the Lalos' behavior, is taught.

Adra, Anogha, phag ldan, in the asura/ naaga families, having darkness/ thamas there are also 5 others

"In the Kalachakra text's list of Prophets we find mention of the "White-Clad One", probably referring to Mani. Buddhists believe that Buddha himself gave this Root Kalachakra Tantra in the ninth century B.C. and that the First Kalki King of Shambhala wrote The Abridged Kalachakra Tantra in the second century B.C. The Kalachakra Tantra appeared in India in the late tenth century and was probably written about this time. It predicts the coming of an Islamic Messiah figure named Mahdi about 2424 AD. In the Kalachakra text we read:

If you ask who propagated the Dharma of the mlecchas, it says, "Adam, Noah, and Abraham of the asura (caste) and, from the naga caste, the five others with tamas: Moses, this one, and The White-Clad One, Muhammad, and The Emanation. That eighth one will be the blinded one. The seventh will manifestly come to the cities of Baghdad and so on in the land of Mecca." Those with these names of non-Buddhists, and so on, will propagate the Dharma of the asuras. Among these, the one called "The White-Clad One" is Mahamayin. That one will propagate the Dharma of the asuras and so on in the cities of the land of Mecca and so on. If you ask what kind of land is that, it says, "(It is the place) in this world where the asura caste will have the form of the powerful, merciless mlecchas." A Commentary on Difficult Points Called "Padmini"

AA dra means half or murderer/executioner ..........
Anogha, means no waves or without sickness............
Phakden.

The other 5 are of the family of a particular kind of asura called lag a'gro [going on the hands] having a naaga family thamas birthplace. These Naaga king and other [teachers] are also 5.

byi ba [mouse]............
Wangpo, lord............
Gökarchen, having white garments [same words as Pandaravasini]............
Drangtsi Lodrö [honey intellect Madhumati].............
Jomje (or Thrugje )............

Those are the 8 with darkness as a birthplace]. "Andhaka" is both blindness and darkness, from which Pemachen and Garö Lotsawa come up with the idea that these 8 are blind. In any case, with these Lalos' evil doctrine's inner darkness, they might as well be blind, and after dying they are born in hell. Some think that it is the darkness of hell that they will have.

gsal bar In Mongolia, or the space country, in the cities of Baagada, meaning speech given, etc., the 7 Lalo teachers up to Drangtsi lodrö, Madhumati, Honey Intellect are truly born. Madhumati spread the Lalo dharma tradition founded by Rahma.na. As such and as the founder of

who initiated Lalo formula astrology he is revered as the leader and guru of the Lalos.

As for the behavior of the Lalos, whatever country in the world they are in, they have asura aspects or proclivities or are of that family, the party of Maara. Dwelling on having power and violent action, without kindness toward sentient beings is the Lalo form or way.

The people in those countries, personally kill camels, horses, and cattle and eat their flesh together with the blood with little cooking, mostly raw, as their only food;

or only cooked on a fire when with forest-fruits, it is these people's food.

A hundred pechas agree that ba lang sha is beef and dngul chu, usually mercury or semen, is "womb-water of the horned ones." Garö Lotsa translates "'bu btsas chu'" as "child-bearing water" and notes that the holy Sakya Lama's Great Commentary says that is cream. I think milk might also be suitable. He says: water, oil, and salt are mixed equally with forest fruits, grain and leaves, and then cooked together on a fire. Where they live, in Space City, Mongolia, that is the food of the Lalo people."

Birds eggs are their drinks." They make a sort of eggnog from beaten eggs. Kye, Lord of Humans, such practices are the style of the asura Lalo people's place or country. Having dark minds, the Lalos too arise by the power of time, thus how does the Bhagavan say that transmutation of these will occur within the realms of sentient beings?

There are 2 ways this can be explained, absolute and relative. 1st for supreme students bindu is upaaya and male and nüma is prajñaa and female. The suchness of these two, inseparably joined as the 1st Buddha wisdom kaaya, is the eye medicine clearing away obscuring dimness, the sky soarer or garuda who eats the poisonous snake of the kleshas, and the divine river that washes away obscuring stains. In the world anything like that is not given. A supreme .ri.shi, treading the supreme path straightforwardly and exactly, by the 2 siddhis satisfies all desires without remainder.

This is the fortress that Maara cannot destroy and the lightning of shining wisdom in the dark tomb of ignorance. Those verses symbolically express the meaning, and by that function good insight becomes inner supreme insight the changeless supreme aspect This becomes the 60 parts of completion of the 22,600 instants. These express the principal, special features of the teacher's mind. As it has no motion or thoughts of motivation, in accord with the individual language of those to be tamed, the speech of the teacher always is distinguished by speaking with supreme divine speech; and without a body gathered together from atoms, the ruupakaaya nature possesses emptiness the supreme of all aspects.

While not moving from the wisdom kaaya of buddhahood, for the sake of those to be tamed, by undertaking buddha activity, with the form [or nature] of true motion these ruupakaayas enter the earth for the sake of beings benefit and happiness. Thus the wisdom kaaya of the Victorious One,

because it is non-dual, abiding in equality with supreme unchanging space, whatever knowables previously have arisen, are presently arising, or will arise in the future, are prophesied and told. Such a Dharma teacher knows all that has arisen or will arise within the 3 times. Particularly in various shastras of the sciences and philosophy etc that see the topics of this side giving good reasons for cutting off exaggerations of insight etc., rectifying the words of the scientific shastras, and in medicinal science having both curing and protecting qualities, completely expressing all the cause and fruition vehicles, such a teacher teaches the Dharma.

These teachers are joined to the inner meaning, by the divisions of the 4 joys, bindu, and the 10 nüma wisdom praa.nas etc., which are not mentioned here.

For ordinary ones to be tamed by relative appearances in a variety of forms, to benefit beings, the teacher, substantially establishing bindu in the forehead etc., goes invisibly and in space and so on. Many things of different kinds that satisfy various desires are established, such as fortresses which outsider aggressors cannot breach. Teachers go wherever they want like lighting. In their minds the sight of suchness, good insight, the changeless aspect of supreme mind is attained. Teaching the Dharma in the languages of the gods etc., without coarse body, attaining a body of the essence etc., teachers benefit practitioners on earth with various siddhis of mantra form or nature, teaching the knowables of the 3 times, the 5 sciences, etc. to those to be tamed.

In brief, Lalo dharma arises from the cause of unknowing darkness, wrongly teaching the meaning of things, and harming sentient beings. For this reason it produces unhappiness. The Buddha Dharma tells how to reverse that.

Then from the Root Tantra the Bhagavan, bestowing the true word on King Suchandra says, Glorious king, and when he had so addressed him, Suchandra, having commented on the Root Tantra for some "days," ie 1 year lasting 360 days, you will teach it to others and build the palace of Kaalachakra. Having completed those and other actions, in the center of the very famous country of Shambhala, in the city of Kaalaapa, surrounded by mountains in the 4 directions and of a measure of 100 pagtse multiplied by mda'a [5]

the emanation of Kshitigarbha Lhayi Wangpo himself will be established as a supreme ruler of humans and appointed to the teacher lineage. Suchandra, as for you, you will go to your own place, as the emanation from which 1st you came.

Some explain his own place as being the emanation of Vajrapaa.ni, some as sambhogakaaya or chang lo chen, the northern buddha field. This having been truly bestowed, the Buddha said, “as for the way of arising of the rigdens being prophesied, In the glorious Shaakya family, will arise the kings of Shambhala in the lineage of Nyima'i Ö and the very brilliant lords of humans from Suchandra to Lha'i Wangden, the 7 dharmaraajas. The 8th will be glorious Drakpa.”

Teaching the Root Tantra for 100 years, as for this Drakpa, his will be the vajra reality of glorious Jampa, Mañjushri, appearing in phenomenal form as the kings of Shambhala who will be called nirmanakaayas. Even the supreme deities will bow devotedly at their lotus feet. When Mañjushrikiirti has finished teaching the Dharma for 100 years, certainty will be given to the bhramin .ri.shis Chariot of the Sun etc.. By being empowered in the supreme mantra vehicle of the vajra caste. They held different castes, bhramins etc., or of no caste at all, with different disciplines.

Therefore, the secret mantra vajra empowerment will be given to the 4 castes, and all the brahmins will be made into a single vajra caste, the Sage's family, and because of that they will be called "rigdens." After that, the 8 kings of Shambhala up to Mañjushrikiirti also will be given the name "rigden."

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In the Kalachakra text's list of Prophets we find mention of the "White-Clad One", probably referring to Mani. Buddhists believe that Buddha himself gave this Root Kalachakra Tantra in the ninth century B.C. and that the First Kalki King of Shambhala wrote The Abridged Kalachakra Tantra in the second century B.C. The Kalachakra Tantra appeared in India in the late tenth century and was probably written about this time. It predicts the coming of an Islamic Messiah figure named Mahdi about 2424 AD.

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Although the “gZi-brjid” specifically identifies Olmoling and Shambhala, neither in the “gZi-brjid” nor the “gZer-mig” is there any mention of Armaggedon or the climactic battle between the forces of the Mlechas from the West and the forces of Shambhala led by the Kulika Rudrachakrin, as is found in the Buddhist recension of the “Kalachakra Tantra”. The Bonpo canon also possesses a variant recension of this “Kalachakra Tantra”, but it is said to be incomplete and it is classified as Kriya Tantra rather than Anuttara Tantra, as is the case in the Buddhist system.

THE ANCIENT SILK ROUTE

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

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The art and civilisation of the Silk Road achieved its highest point in the Tang Dynasty. Changan, as the starting point of the route, as well as the capital of the dynasty, developed into one of the largest and most cosmopolitan cities of the time. By 742 A.D., the population had reached almost two million, and the city itself covered almost the same area as present-day Xian, considerably more than within the present walls of the city. The 754 A.D. census showed that five thousand foreigners lived in the city; Turks, Iranians, Indians and others from along the Road, as well as Japanese, Koreans and Malays from the east. Many were missionaries, merchants or pilgrims, but every other occupation was also represented. Rare plants, medicines, spices and other goods from the west were to be found in the bazaars of the city.

About the 7th century, when information started to filter along the Road. It was at this time that the rise of Islam started to affect Asia, and a curtain came down between the east and west. Trade relations soon resumed, however, with the Moslems playing the part of middlemen. The sea route to China was explored at this time, and the `Sea Silk Route' was opened, eventually holding a more important place than the land route itself, as the land route became less profitable.

The steady advance of Islam, temporarily halted by the Mongols, continued until it formed a major force across Central Asia, surrounding the Taklimakan like Buddhism had almost a millennium earlier. The artwork of the region suffered under the encroach of Islam. Whereas the Buddhist artists had concentrated on figures in painting and sculpture, the human form was scorned in Islamic artwork; this difference led to the destruction of much of the original artwork. Many of the grottos have been defaced in this way, particularly at the more accessible sites such as Bezeklik, near Turfan, where most of the human faces in the remaining frescoes have been scratched out.

DUNHUANG........The crowning discovery was of a walled-up library within the Mogao grottos at Dunhuang. This contained a stack of thousands of manuscripts, Buddhist paintings and silk temple banners. The manuscripts were in Chinese, Sanskrit, Tibetan, Uyghur and several other less widely known languages, and they covered a wide range of subjects; everything from sections of the Lutras Sutra to stories and ballads from the Tang dynasty and before. Among these is what is believed to be the world's oldest printed book. This hoard had been discovered by a Daoist monk at the beginning of the twentieth century, and he had appointed himself as their protector.

There is still a lot to see around the Taklimakan, mostly in the form of damaged grottos and ruined cities. Whilst some people are drawn by the archaeology, others are attracted by the minority peoples; there are thirteen different races of people in the region, apart from the Han Chinese, from the Tibetans and Mongolians in the east of the region, to the Tajik, Kazakhs and Uzbeks in the west. Others are drawn to the mysterious cities such as Kashgar, where the Sunday market maintains much of the old Silk Road spirit, with people of many different nationalities selling everything from spice and wool to livestock and silver knives. Many of the present-day travellers are Japanese, visiting the places where their Buddhist religion passed on its way to Japan.

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Explorations into the Kalachakra

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

**************************

"SHAMBHALA...."In 624 AD, a Moslem invasion weakened the Kingdom of Shambhala."(Roerich: 1974..pg 753) (Geoffrey Hopkins: 1985..pg 60)

In 624 AD the Sassian Shah Yazdigird is defeated by the Arabs at the battle of Nahavand....."in the era of the Mlecchas, the starting year of the Kalacakra chronology is the first year of the Hijra, calculated from the year 624 AD."..(Roerich:1949...pg 753)....

The Turkic Ghaznavids conquered Kabul in the 980s. It was at about this time that the Kalachakra teachings openly appeared in India, transmitted in visions to two Indian masters attempting to reach Shambhala. Although the Muslim Ghaznavids tolerated Buddhism and Hinduism in Kabul, they smashed the Ismaili Islamic state of Multan in north central Pakistan in 1008. The Ismaili Fatimids in Egypt were the rivals of the Ghaznavids for supremacy over the entire Muslim world. After this victory, the Ghaznavad ruler Mahmud of Ghazni, driven undoubtedly by greed for more land and wealth, pressed his invasion further eastward as far as Madhura, south of Delhi. He looted and destroyed the wealthy Buddhist monasteries that lay in his path. When the Ghaznavad troops pushed northward from Delhi, however, and tried to invade Kashmir, the Kashmiri King Samgrama Raja, a supporter of both Buddhism and Hinduism, defeated them in 1021. This was the first attack on Kashmir by a Muslim army. The Kalachakra Tantra reached Tibet from Kashmir in 1027, the year predicted by the First Kalki.

The 7 dharmaraajas and 25 rigdens, bodhisattvas and wrathful kings, are 32 emanations, and as for the last seat, there are 32 generations of seat holders and 25 rigdens. Jamyang Rigden Drakpa himself again is the asura conquering all the Lalo enemies with lives of 100 years, having in his hand a wheel. Grasping a wheel in his hand he rises. As for Lalo taming rigdens, those to be conquered are the Lalos. Why so? The way of arising of the Lalo teacher and the Lalos' behavior, is taught.

Adra, Anogha, phag ldan, in the asura/ naaga families, having darkness/ thamas there are also 5 others

"In the Kalachakra text's list of Prophets we find mention of the "White-Clad One", probably referring to Mani. Buddhists believe that Buddha himself gave this Root Kalachakra Tantra in the ninth century B.C. and that the First Kalki King of Shambhala wrote The Abridged Kalachakra Tantra in the second century B.C. The Kalachakra Tantra appeared in India in the late tenth century and was probably written about this time. It predicts the coming of an Islamic Messiah figure named Mahdi about 2424 AD. In the Kalachakra text we read:

If you ask who propagated the Dharma of the mlecchas, it says, "Adam, Noah, and Abraham of the asura (caste) and, from the naga caste, the five others with tamas: Moses, this one, and The White-Clad One, Muhammad, and The Emanation. That eighth one will be the blinded one. The seventh will manifestly come to the cities of Baghdad and so on in the land of Mecca." Those with these names of non-Buddhists, and so on, will propagate the Dharma of the asuras. Among these, the one called "The White-Clad One" is Mahamayin. That one will propagate the Dharma of the asuras and so on in the cities of the land of Mecca and so on. If you ask what kind of land is that, it says, "(It is the place) in this world where the asura caste will have the form of the powerful, merciless mlecchas." A Commentary on Difficult Points Called "Padmini"

AA dra means half or murderer/executioner ..........
Anogha, means no waves or without sickness............
Phakden.

The other 5 are of the family of a particular kind of asura called lag a'gro [going on the hands] having a naaga family thamas birthplace. These Naaga king and other [teachers] are also 5.

byi ba [mouse]............
Wangpo, lord............
Gökarchen, having white garments [same words as Pandaravasini]............
Drangtsi Lodrö [honey intellect Madhumati].............
Jomje (or Thrugje )............

Those are the 8 with darkness as a birthplace]. "Andhaka" is both blindness and darkness, from which Pemachen and Garö Lotsawa come up with the idea that these 8 are blind. In any case, with these Lalos' evil doctrine's inner darkness, they might as well be blind, and after dying they are born in hell. Some think that it is the darkness of hell that they will have.

gsal bar In Mongolia, or the space country, in the cities of Baagada, meaning speech given, etc., the 7 Lalo teachers up to Drangtsi lodrö, Madhumati, Honey Intellect are truly born. Madhumati spread the Lalo dharma tradition founded by Rahma.na. As such and as the founder of

who initiated Lalo formula astrology he is revered as the leader and guru of the Lalos.

As for the behavior of the Lalos, whatever country in the world they are in, they have asura aspects or proclivities or are of that family, the party of Maara. Dwelling on having power and violent action, without kindness toward sentient beings is the Lalo form or way.

The people in those countries, personally kill camels, horses, and cattle and eat their flesh together with the blood with little cooking, mostly raw, as their only food;

or only cooked on a fire when with forest-fruits, it is these people's food.

A hundred pechas agree that ba lang sha is beef and dngul chu, usually mercury or semen, is "womb-water of the horned ones." Garö Lotsa translates "'bu btsas chu'" as "child-bearing water" and notes that the holy Sakya Lama's Great Commentary says that is cream. I think milk might also be suitable. He says: water, oil, and salt are mixed equally with forest fruits, grain and leaves, and then cooked together on a fire. Where they live, in Space City, Mongolia, that is the food of the Lalo people."

Birds eggs are their drinks." They make a sort of eggnog from beaten eggs. Kye, Lord of Humans, such practices are the style of the asura Lalo people's place or country. Having dark minds, the Lalos too arise by the power of time, thus how does the Bhagavan say that transmutation of these will occur within the realms of sentient beings?

There are 2 ways this can be explained, absolute and relative. 1st for supreme students bindu is upaaya and male and nüma is prajñaa and female. The suchness of these two, inseparably joined as the 1st Buddha wisdom kaaya, is the eye medicine clearing away obscuring dimness, the sky soarer or garuda who eats the poisonous snake of the kleshas, and the divine river that washes away obscuring stains. In the world anything like that is not given. A supreme .ri.shi, treading the supreme path straightforwardly and exactly, by the 2 siddhis satisfies all desires without remainder.

This is the fortress that Maara cannot destroy and the lightning of shining wisdom in the dark tomb of ignorance. Those verses symbolically express the meaning, and by that function good insight becomes inner supreme insight the changeless supreme aspect This becomes the 60 parts of completion of the 22,600 instants. These express the principal, special features of the teacher's mind. As it has no motion or thoughts of motivation, in accord with the individual language of those to be tamed, the speech of the teacher always is distinguished by speaking with supreme divine speech; and without a body gathered together from atoms, the ruupakaaya nature possesses emptiness the supreme of all aspects.

While not moving from the wisdom kaaya of buddhahood, for the sake of those to be tamed, by undertaking buddha activity, with the form [or nature] of true motion these ruupakaayas enter the earth for the sake of beings benefit and happiness. Thus the wisdom kaaya of the Victorious One,

because it is non-dual, abiding in equality with supreme unchanging space, whatever knowables previously have arisen, are presently arising, or will arise in the future, are prophesied and told. Such a Dharma teacher knows all that has arisen or will arise within the 3 times. Particularly in various shastras of the sciences and philosophy etc that see the topics of this side giving good reasons for cutting off exaggerations of insight etc., rectifying the words of the scientific shastras, and in medicinal science having both curing and protecting qualities, completely expressing all the cause and fruition vehicles, such a teacher teaches the Dharma.

These teachers are joined to the inner meaning, by the divisions of the 4 joys, bindu, and the 10 nüma wisdom praa.nas etc., which are not mentioned here.

For ordinary ones to be tamed by relative appearances in a variety of forms, to benefit beings, the teacher, substantially establishing bindu in the forehead etc., goes invisibly and in space and so on. Many things of different kinds that satisfy various desires are established, such as fortresses which outsider aggressors cannot breach. Teachers go wherever they want like lighting. In their minds the sight of suchness, good insight, the changeless aspect of supreme mind is attained. Teaching the Dharma in the languages of the gods etc., without coarse body, attaining a body of the essence etc., teachers benefit practitioners on earth with various siddhis of mantra form or nature, teaching the knowables of the 3 times, the 5 sciences, etc. to those to be tamed.

In brief, Lalo dharma arises from the cause of unknowing darkness, wrongly teaching the meaning of things, and harming sentient beings. For this reason it produces unhappiness. The Buddha Dharma tells how to reverse that.

Then from the Root Tantra the Bhagavan, bestowing the true word on King Suchandra says, Glorious king, and when he had so addressed him, Suchandra, having commented on the Root Tantra for some "days," ie 1 year lasting 360 days, you will teach it to others and build the palace of Kaalachakra. Having completed those and other actions, in the center of the very famous country of Shambhala, in the city of Kaalaapa, surrounded by mountains in the 4 directions and of a measure of 100 pagtse multiplied by mda'a [5]

the emanation of Kshitigarbha Lhayi Wangpo himself will be established as a supreme ruler of humans and appointed to the teacher lineage. Suchandra, as for you, you will go to your own place, as the emanation from which 1st you came.

Some explain his own place as being the emanation of Vajrapaa.ni, some as sambhogakaaya or chang lo chen, the northern buddha field. This having been truly bestowed, the Buddha said, “as for the way of arising of the rigdens being prophesied, In the glorious Shaakya family, will arise the kings of Shambhala in the lineage of Nyima'i Ö and the very brilliant lords of humans from Suchandra to Lha'i Wangden, the 7 dharmaraajas. The 8th will be glorious Drakpa.”

Teaching the Root Tantra for 100 years, as for this Drakpa, his will be the vajra reality of glorious Jampa, Mañjushri, appearing in phenomenal form as the kings of Shambhala who will be called nirmanakaayas. Even the supreme deities will bow devotedly at their lotus feet. When Mañjushrikiirti has finished teaching the Dharma for 100 years, certainty will be given to the bhramin .ri.shis Chariot of the Sun etc.. By being empowered in the supreme mantra vehicle of the vajra caste. They held different castes, bhramins etc., or of no caste at all, with different disciplines.

Therefore, the secret mantra vajra empowerment will be given to the 4 castes, and all the brahmins will be made into a single vajra caste, the Sage's family, and because of that they will be called "rigdens." After that, the 8 kings of Shambhala up to Mañjushrikiirti also will be given the name "rigden."

**************************

In the Kalachakra text's list of Prophets we find mention of the "White-Clad One", probably referring to Mani. Buddhists believe that Buddha himself gave this Root Kalachakra Tantra in the ninth century B.C. and that the First Kalki King of Shambhala wrote The Abridged Kalachakra Tantra in the second century B.C. The Kalachakra Tantra appeared in India in the late tenth century and was probably written about this time. It predicts the coming of an Islamic Messiah figure named Mahdi about 2424 AD.

**************************

Although the “gZi-brjid” specifically identifies Olmoling and Shambhala, neither in the “gZi-brjid” nor the “gZer-mig” is there any mention of Armaggedon or the climactic battle between the forces of the Mlechas from the West and the forces of Shambhala led by the Kulika Rudrachakrin, as is found in the Buddhist recension of the “Kalachakra Tantra”. The Bonpo canon also possesses a variant recension of this “Kalachakra Tantra”, but it is said to be incomplete and it is classified as Kriya Tantra rather than Anuttara Tantra, as is the case in the Buddhist system.

Kalachakra Text and Military Strategy

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

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*19th CONQUERING FORTS AND DEFENSIVE MACHINES

Defeating enemies in war etc. are taught in verses 127-148. Having previously done the time and direction power calculations for the Dharma possessing lokapaalas and for conquering the hosts of others, here the actions of machines useful for that are taught. From that, in this tantra there are 7 kinds: stone-catapults etc., naaga swords, chariots, show-houses, and circle cannons, [throwers], together with water-leading machines of 12 kinds. From these teachings, 1st the need for such machines for overcoming others is taught.

As for enemies to be defeated in war, if it happens that a ruler's warriors remain in their own fortress,

outside it machines must be made. Continuously stones, and fire- arrows should descend on them.

One's own palace guards should have cutting engines with swords etc., and on the ground by performing vajra songs and rituals,

that fortress will be defeated. In a few days the hostilities will be successful.

2nd, the extensive explanation is taught in 12 parts. 1) A offensive stone-catapult is taught for a plain-fortress surrounded by warriors.

As for 4 pillars, having 8 2 cubits, that perhaps means they are 16 cubits long. They are square, with a width of 16 fingers. That is the ultimate measure of the engine. As intermediate measures there are 4 pillars 14 cubits long and 14 fingers wide. The lesser ones are 14 cubits and 14 fingers. These 4 pillars have equal holes drilled to the east and west and unequal ones to the south and north at the 8 end places, and the measure of them is 1/3 the pillars' width.

Where the holes are drilled there are gdung bu, little rails, extending places. As for these different holes, in front the rails are chu gter 4, to the right dus, 4 to the left dus, 4. To the back, in the lower part is also 1. In the back 2 pillars are 5 holes. To the east 4 are displayed. And to the south and north are 1 each show. In the 2 pillars in front are 8 holes.

As for the width of the engine, at the bottom, as for the measure of the 4 pillars of the engine, it is 10 lag pa, 10 cubits. The upper part is half that, 5 cubits. Those both are square. The bolts to be shot are less by 2 cubits than the pillars, [16 - 2 =] 14 cubits. The measure of the part above the A'PHRUL SHING, or central O LOG GCU, the propelling shaft which engages with the heads of the bolts to be shot, is 6 cubits. This length of the o log gcu is additional, not included in the base.

The center is thick and the left and right faces taper like of ox-tails. Their center is round and with half the thickness, with a measure of 2 cubits. The 2 faces are 20 fingers. The O LOG GCU’S, 2 peak points outside vases are of 30 fingers. In the central round shaft, a hole thub pa, 7, fingers long and ma nu, 14, fingers wide has been cut. In that

hole in the O LOG GCU, bolts, disregarding 1 cubit, 13 cubit ox tail forms are made. The throwing arrows should be put into that hole for propulsion. The O LOG BCU’S behind part is fastened by iron nails. It should be made stable.

In the heads of the throwing arrows with a cubit measure up to 1/3rd part 2 holes are drilled, having 2 iron a long or rings. They are round and the circumference is 60fingers. They are made of iron round rods of 6 fingers. To each of these rings 50 ropes should be tied. The upper measure of the O LOG GCU is a half circle.

At the throwing arrow end, as for the point, the finger with its tongue fully enters. The throwing arrow end gnya'a non [pressing ] round shapes height is identified as 16 fingers.

By the 2 nails the throwing arrow and the tongue are thrown. It points toward the tongue tip. 6 fingers is the tongue presser measure. It is placed in its hole up to the throwing arrow's presser together with tongue and finger. As for this finger of the throwing arrow, the slinging palm with the ropes is of a fixed size of 3 cubits.

and its leather sling palm is 24 fingers. The center thick breadth has right and left subtly taperng stages like an [ox] tail. 1/2 cubit is extra. In that throwing palm stones are put. Having strong human power those who pull it pull the ropes and, as it shoots, suddenly they will go quickly into space, and having gone they will accurately and suddenly fall on houses, roads etc. and having struck all those things the rocks will go below the ground, like a suddenly descending vajra, thunderbolt.

The finger of that machine has the shape of a half moon. On the ground between east and west a painting of Bhramaa below the fingery is equally drawn. In the left and right 2 faces of that picture at different heights are 8 stone throwing places, which are 2 stone throwing places for 8 parts of the earth right and left. As for the way of throwing stones, released from both clenched hands of persons, they should be shot and at the time of shooting, by fists of the 2 hands the stone is made to touch the earth. When it is shot to the right, the face is in the right direction. Equal feet shoot right and left. By placing the feet so that they dwell in the machine unequally to the right the stone is shot. If 1 shoots in the center, the back is straight. Do it having placed the 2 feet in the machine.

From that the stone will fall as 1 desires. By the power of going in 3 ways to right, left, or center, there will be the goal of completely overcoming the fortress of the outsiders.

Hit by these throwing stones, even an elephant will surely fall at once, not to mention smaller beings.

All the enemy army staying in the upper house of a fort will be made to fall outside.

Therefore, combatants whose fortresses are in flat places on the earth with talented archers grasping their bows cannot rival this machine.

Where such a machine has completely attacked a fort, the enemies who dwell there will come into the mouth of the lord of death. That is the explanation of the rock throwing engine for a flatland fort.

Then in the case of water-fortifications water machines of the nature of great ships are taught. Here for water machines, the thick main timbers are 6 fingers wide and 14 cubits long. Elephant-operated machines are 24 fingers. Horse operated machines are 20 fingers. Human operated ones are 16 fingers. For the 1st machine length is up to 12 cubits matched or a little more. There are garlanded? pillars and dpung pa, [literally: shoulders]. That is, the 2 are each adorned with 6 rails, and above there are also 6. Above and below in both there is equal measure, and as for the cubits of each, zung gi khar, it is 2 cubits, so that it is exactly square without more or less.

For the 6 pillars and in the rails, by each of the 2 snying po [literally heart, central ] combined they are nyi ma 12 cubits. ? Both pillars and rails are equal with neither extra or lack.

In all the individual re'u mig apertures shields are arranged facing in the same direction," and so that water will not get in, above and below, to the south, east, west, and north, everywhere at the borders of the individual shields which are covered with skin, there are water-shielding-cloths rubbed and covered with melted wax.

For an elephant machine the SNYING PO height is 3 cubits; for horses 2 1/2 cubits; For people 2 cubits. How in the center of the SNYING PO so that the water of the waves will not enter, as for 2 cubits of height, in the throat place of a great ship for entering in the middle of the SNYING PO it should be done. By the divisions of lesser, middle, and supreme SNYING PO, there are many machines. dus, of 6 cubuts a SNYING PO can be for 1 machine and similarly 8 and skyon, 18, and the SNYING PO of 3 x nyin byed, 12, = 36, but as for 1 machine, in making it, for crossing a great ocean the SNYING PO can be as much as 1,000.

Here externally there are 4 DPUNG PA and rails, to the east and to the west 2 DPUNG PA and to the south and to the north 2, that is 4 altogether and wooden pillars up to the snying po 4 GRA [corners?, row ] a'phrul pa, shields, of the dpung pa and rails' size are placed everywhere or placed in a circle. Moreover the places of the rowers except for slits should be so circled.

Behind all the machines’ 12 *?? SNYING PO are 6 oarsmen. Similarly for a great engine 12 30 and up to 100 as a limit, these oarsman directly from in front of the engine by the 2 equal DPUNG PA before and behind steer the machine, with a count as before or according with the size of the machine, up to the above limit.

Fastened in holes in the direction pillars are moving wind-cloths or sails, and fixing the sails according with their knowledge of the direction where the wind is going, by that the ship, moved by wind, will go where it is steered.

Going aboard such a ship-machine, one's troops enter into the midst of the outsiders waters to harm their sea-side forts and seize territory, and they go on the ocean. That is the explanation of a water fort warship machine.

Now destroying mountain forts. To cast burning grain oil a wind machine or fire machine is taught. Having chu gter, 4, corners making a 4 cornered square platform in the style of a shield in the center of which is a round pillar in length 3 cubits in size 2 are made in the corner of this shield cloth sails for moving air dang in length 5 bru [a measure] having 1 size together with victory banners the pillar should be made.

Left right and back and front of the shield in the corners are iron phurba points having rings and ropes tied to those rings should be tied to the head of the pillar. 3 sides of the machine above and below should be covered above and below by the strongest possible coverings. At the corners are the victory banners as explained. In the below right and left corners nails up to 2 bru [ a measure] are 3 ropes. There from the ends of the ropes combined into 1 having made it of a measure equal of that of the mountain fort. Those ropes from the direction behind the fort are taken and pulled by men and from the ground by those ropes' drawing power as for going upward, that engine moved by the wind certainly will go above the rock fort into the air.

In that machine burning oil and people with fire should go. Then, riding in the wind machine those people from that wind machine throw burning oil so that the enemy army and fort and all the people will all be burned. The fire machine is sure to overcome a mountain fortress.

On one's own fortresses sides so that others may not enter into the midst, as for a hooked knife machine of whirling swords, at the of a circle of swords at the end of the life tree, an iron made space seat 1 pointed sits in a lower hole and above [the space seat] also is a circle,

a water wheel, and water driven paddles made like a wheel, ie around the life tree are up to fingers 2 x 2 = 4 as spokes of the wheel; each spoke consists of 1 of them. The spokes also at all the round ends of the life tree completely pervasively should be established.

That wheel in diameter, as for cubits, there are 3 and 1/2; and above the space seat also there besides the wheel the life tree is placed.

At the peak above the life tree like the lower lower wheel spokes, sharp swords are put which whirl swiftly. They will cut the bodies of enemies. That machine by which it is made so that the machine's lower wheel's base turns by means of water or wind.

The Great Commentary says that the wheel of hooked knives will be understood by visualizing it. By the verses it is also completely taught. Similarly the wind machine also will be very clear, so these 2 and the tent machine are not explained in the commentary. Here description of the earlier commentaries is like the way of telling about attacking with burning oil.

At the top of the fort is placed a windmill it is taught. Driven by ropes, the wind machines go into space. As in the explanation of the previous machine, from one's own side in the direction of the enemy moving according to the stages of the wind, and with sails etc. using the wind as a special mechanical means, gradually its going above the enemies' fort and going into their individual houses is a certainty. Men having taken the measure, having pulled the ropes, that is the measure of height of the level of the mountain and having a measure of just the right amount of rope to reach to the place of the enemy, in that manner it is known or expressed. Thus having mounted in an air-going machine, by having penetrated or opened the peak of the enemy's fortress destroy it.

The fort's essential heart is presented at the peak, the enemy's houses foundations and meeting places as before, 1 should set fire to them.

That was the ascertainment of a windmill at the peak of a fort. Then a vajra tent machine is taught for destroying castle walls.

Using wheels like chariot wheels, in the upper part of iron and wood, a great tent-shaped house is set up.

Even in the intermediate directions there are shields or bucklers, and outside it is completely covered with buffalo skins in a round shape.

Pulling the machine, men move it. From all sides equally trenching in the ground, they go on circling until they complete it.

Then the men having filled that trench with earth, it is made equal. They suddenly enter the enemies' castle wall and battlements. In that way, destroying the walls or battlement-fortifications, they will have them in their power. That is the vajra tent machine. Then an armor piercing iron arrow machine is taught.

Bows etc where fixed on the ground a gdang bu or platform in width 6 fingers shoots iron arrows of the same measure. Equal to the iron arrow width measure from wa [gutter/ drain]3 to 6 those brkos carved/engraved wa [gutter/ drain] above and below left and right parts iron sticks 36 square peak to the platform by nails sealed holes in by square iron phurbas at the 2 edges and center certainly together with their strings the bow The right and left iron nails hold or bind them motionless, and then the aforementioned iron stick peak phurba stabbing phurbas nostrils should be put both on the machine and peaks.

Again on the behind part of the machine platform to the right and left are 2 iron square stabbing phurbas and in the middle of the well arrayed Propulsion shaft are connected from 2 to 6 finger-like half a'gyogs [crooked, litter, stretcher, lifter??.?]

Below an iron stick of a small hammer’s measure of 3 fingers should be placed below moving together with the phurba's ring. Above at the peak of the fingers, the bowstring should be attached. At those peaks of the fingers at the individual ends are iron arrows and strings. By that bowstring with equal strength many sharp arrows or iron arrows

At the time of war, by being shot, as well as piercing armor, having wounded the bodies of elephants it will go right through them. That is the armored elephant piercing iron arrow machine. Here as there is little extensive explanation by the commentaries, this is merely from the words of the Root Tantra. These machines cannot really be understood by the rough explanation given, and the eye of reason cannot visualize them. Nor do the earlier Tibetan commentaries say anything in detail. If we had overall sight of them, it would be easy, but since there is no way we can, it is all quite vague. Thus, having finished the explanation of the 7 outsider-conquering machines, now there are the machines for guarding one's own side. To guard a king's palace, below a sword machine is taught.

There are 2 Columns square with a width of 12 fingers, and 2 long and short squares. They go 2 cubits downwards, carved, sinking into the ground and stably placed. They are wound with ropes.

Above the earth 2 1/2 cubits are passed over. Then in left and right pillar holes a'phrul shing or rails are placed. Passing above 6 fingers ropes are firmly tied. In the center of or between 2 ropes is a sphere in which are sockets as holders for swords, with a round cavity on which are twisted ropes, twisted around many times.

Into the center of that sphere, are placed 2 sword holders. The sphere and sword holders directly penetrating to fix them motionlessly, the swords are tightly fastened by nails.

Similarly on the front 2 pillars are swords circling in the reverse direction from the previous swords in such a way that both the parts of the swords newar the points come together. Together with the nails and ropes except for the places where the swords come out, the machine should be covered by shields, so that it cannot be seen. From above, if the enemies' feet tread on the sword point tips, spontaneously move. The swords motionlessly should be tread on.

Above that the holes where the swords protrude where they come together with the perforated shields, there when anyone places their feet there, from them the swords will be pushed and go upwards.

Above the swords are the moons: the name of the rails above the sword handles is "moons." So it is taught, or perhaps it is talking about the symbols on the shields. Anyway, the measure of these rails is 6 fingers. In the center part, made of iron a treadle [very solid] should be placed for the sake of treading on the swords.

Whoever's foot is placed above the moons will suddenly be cut by the swords.

Then in the upper half of the device mirrors, wreaths, victory banners etc. are arranged.

Then kshaatriya caste warrior's chariots are taught.

For chariots 1st having made a stable life-tree, above the wooden axle whose width is 6 fingers of wood, and length nyi ma lag pa 12 cubits. by 6 east and west and 6 north and south there is a seat or place for people. Moreover above the life tree where peoples' seats or places are to be a house should be made. How? In the 8 directions and in the center equal to the measure of the chariot wheels, or 1/9th the seat square. The width of the life tree is 14 fingers. Make that into 3 parts. The center part is left alone. At the 2 end places make holes. Put wheel spokes in those holes. Fasten them to the life-tree with nails. In the round holes at their bases they turn with the wheels. At the 4 corners of that chariot 4 columns meet and are connected to the rails above and below them. The equal chariot is 1 drawn by an even number of horses etc. and the unequal chariot by horses etc. of uneven number. On the above-mentioned columns having passed over 1 part, the half part above that is the place of warriors. The drawers of equal or unequal chariots are horses or elephants. 2 4 and 6 are equal and 3 5 and 7 are unequal and the height of the chariot should be the height of the bodies of the animals that pull it.

Then the half circle place of the warriors above should be beautified by with an array of mirrors, garlands, victory banners, bells etc..

1, 2 half parts. Below the place, the place of the warriors is 1 part. The window-like hole is 1/2 part. The above stage-like window is also 1/2 part. Combined, these 2 similar features are 1 part + the 1 part of the warriors = 2. For fighting in war the place with the windows looking in the 4 directions should be made the place of the warriors and weapons. zla ba lag pa rtse mo can is 1 2 3. Above the place of the pillars' rails up to the driver's place is 1 part of 4 fingers. The fighters' places on the columns are 2 parts of 4 fingers. Above, the columns are 3 parts of 4 fingers. Above that is the place of the symbolic things, the victory banners etc.. Thus with 1 part etc. the place and individual seats' measure should be known with certainty.

In the divisions of 3 chariots, the horse drawn chariots' wheel = 2 1/2 cubits. The life-tree is a little over 4 times the measure of the wheels. The chariot ma.n.dala complete part measure twice repeated is square in the 4 directions. At the 2 ends the wheels should be of that measure. The elephant chariot is twice as big as the horse chariot. As it is explained that it has a round of 1 1/2 parts, such a sphere is the lotus chariot's place. As for establishing the divisions of the chariot of joy,

the measure of the wheels together with the 4 supports of those drawn by horse and elephant is 2 1/2 cubits."

Those of the gods are of the lotus family. Those of the sons of the gods are of the family of joy. Those of humans

With 8 and chu gter, 4, life trees and 8 wheels with life tree is a great chariot that cannot retreat from war. Below and above the 1 with has 2 life trees and 4 wheels, half those of the great chariot. The 3 chariots here are the great chariot, 1 half that size, and 1 equal half that size again with 2 wheels. The chariots of the gods have 1 wheel. The sun's chariot is also like that.

How so? The sun's supreme chariot has 1 wheel and an uneven number of 7 horses. The asuras have rnam par a'joms pa all-conquering chariots.

The kshaatriya chariots are equal and non-equal great chariots non- retreating from war.

Similarly 1 life tree and 2 wheel equal and unequal chariots, drawn by 3 yokes and 2 ropes with horses etc. pulling them, and in war able to turn around and go backwards, whether they are pressed behind, or in the above direction, or whether they conquer the enemy in front of the pullers, they equally will conquer. Thus for guarding one's own side sword machines and kshaatriya warrior chariots are taught. Then devices for theatrical entertainments are taught. Like the palaces of the gods, the nature of the moving places that lords of humans have for a show is taught.

The pillars are 20 cubits. The back is 24 fingers. There are an equal count of holes Where? 1 end of the hole has a measure of 6 cubits. The 2nd has 5. The 3rd chu gter, 4. The 4th me yi, 3. By parts to the tip of the pillar every cubit there is an equal hole. 4 similar ones are drilled. The lowest part is 13 cubits.

Above the Above the parts are half of that part or 7 1/2 cubits. By the building's storied construction they are like that. Above the assembly palace are rails 4 4 [sets of 4, 8, 16??] in the roof, like the deities' palaces.

Like the deities palaces on the ground the places of lords of humans too with triple stories are moved for the country's shows and feasts.

From cubit to cubit ni having wheels in all directions they are immense.145

The 1st story, with pillars above the externally arising rails all surrounded by shields. It is circled by 3 cubits. The 2nd story it is circled by 1 cubit. That is the ascertainment of the deities palaces and lords of humanss' houses' transported for festivals.

Now, for spring feasts, the characteristics of swift wheeled ones are taught. The previously explained chariots had 4 life trees or axles and 8 wheels, similarly with 8 wheels above which, 4 pillars of the measure of an elephant chariot pillar are inserted with the parts of the pillar tips from below to above as above explained, by their 3 stories these quick ones can circulate in all the 4 directions.

Above the rails 4 4, the 1st story in the 4 directions are 8 2, 16, platforms. On the 2nd are 8 and on the 3rd are half of that or 4. On the 1st story above are phyogs, 10, hands above the rails, and what is viewed from each direction is like the other directions. In every direction of the 2nd story are dus, 6, hands and and in every direction of the 3rd are dus, 4, supporting hands. The supports of the hands are the rails of the 3 places or stories.

for those 3 large ones, above the lower ones and below the upper ones, making a circle, [or just surrounding it?] hand-held carrying poles carried by noble and attractive youths and maidens are inserted in holes in the pillars.

The upper poles are inside and the lower ones de? las outside. By the stories they go below and above. In the 8 directions those, which move or a'khyogs pa [carry] it, are in all directions or encircle it. Those are the characteristics of the device's carrying apparatus. It is covered above and below. As for those poles, the upper ones are inside and the lower ones outside. Continuously 1 after the other all the machines have all kinds of upper stories and coverings. Now for flower gardens etc., water-leading vase-water machines are taught.

Above and below or left and right, whichever, above is right and upward and below is right and downward, having a tube like a bamboo stem, as for such a device it is carried. Corresponding 1 to another, all the machines made are in the form of pipes. The device is always a water conducting machine with square pipes.

Behind it, in the center, is a water entering hole that entering a vase shape at the tip of the pipe. The pipe tip is inserted in the vessel's mouth. Below the vase's mouth "there is also a hole of the measure of the pipe's hole.

As for vases or pipes of other shapes, along the pipe entering the machine, at its peak or half-way up or just in 2 or 3 places other tube tips are seamlessly joined 1 to another continuously, going from the water source to where the water is to be led. The hole behind the machine is made to the measure of the pipe tip entering the vase throat, and from the vase having the pipe, other pipes around the machine are placed in the water. Then when the tip of the pipe is joined to the others, the holes of the vase, are put in front of the pipe tip. Sealed so no air gets into it or into the holes of the 2 or 3 pipes etc. when another pipe is joined, hindering the vase from in front, the pipe tip hole coming into it should be stoppered with a soft plug. Then as long as the machine is full of water, if the machine's vase hole is tight, from lakes etc. the vase's inner wind breath conducts the water. The conducted water is squirted from the vase holes.

So led the water will go to flowery pleasure groves and medicinal gardens. That is the ascertainment of the machine of 10 waters. Some join a "true meaning" explanation to these devices, and though it may without great contradiction, the wise say it should not be done. Without seeing the machines with one's own eyes, the pith is uncertain, and some whose intention is easier to understand are not explained in the commentaries. Though 1 might make all kinds of explanations, the commentaries, words are unalterably brief and vague. Various changes have occurred which are not clearly taught by former gurus. Therefore, these things are suitably left alone with equanimity. Following the Root Tantra's words, or even if 1 follows the syntax loosely, these may still be explained but, if those who do not abide in the meaning have only a little of it, they should confess as much. The final summary of the teaching of machines was given as a teaching by Dharmaraaja Jampel Mañjushrikiirti to the Bhramin Chariot of the Sun.

In supreme great Jambuling, the land where Buddha's teachings abide, to accomplish the hostile action of annihilating those on the side of harming the teachings, the Lalos etc., and for the sake of victory, possessing the Dharma,

in the supreme 1st Buddha which the Bhagavan Shaakyamuni, the guru of the 3 worlds, formerly taught to the nirmanakaaya of Vajrapaa. king Suchandra, from all this about the nature of the vowels arising in speech and about machines

From this, just a little here today in this country I am clearly teaching to you.

To guard our own land which possesses the Dharma use all these things. These things are not to be used from passion and aggression. Sun Kye. Having gained complete knowledge of Kaalachakra, that these other things should also be done is the certain command of the Bhagavan. Everything up to this point, including the outer, inner, and other places, or symbols of the 10 fold abhisheka are explained by means of 10 summaries of the Great Commentary. From here on, since it is easy to understand, no explanation is made in the commentary.

Monday, September 24, 2012

Ancient Cities, Capitals, Courts

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Damascus has the reputation of being the oldest city in the world though there are no actual records of when Damascus was founded - as records were not kept by its early inhabitants. More recent discoveries suggest that Damascus was first settled ca. 6,000 B.C. but some discoveries suggest that it is older than 8,000 B.C. but we don't know exactly who ruled Damascus at that time. An old story says that its name "Sham" was derived from "Shem" the eldest son of Noah because he chose to live there after the flood. .......Shem in Hebrew means "Sun"

COSMIC CITY..."Plato explained the ideal city as divided into 12 sectors which allowed cosmic laws and proportion to penetrate the city and allow the inhabitants to live under cosmic laws. This cosmic pattern is especially clear in the royal circular cities of the ancient Orient. A number of Parthian, Sassanian, and Abbasid cities are cited. In Persia: Darabjird, Firuzabad, Kalach, Hiraqla, Hamadan (Ecbatana)" (Sacral Kingship: 1959..pg 481)...

APAMEA....Syrian city founded in the Third Century BC by the Seleucids.

ASCALON....Syrian Temple to Astarte (Venus)..Herodotus.Bk I, #105....

ASH SHAMAKHA....(49E..41N)...(Shemakha)..."Beyond the Kur River (Araxes), along the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus Range is the Shirvan Province with its capital of Ash-Shamakha, site of the fountain of life.. Foot of the mountains. Beautiful gardens. In the mountains of Darband was the fortress of Kabalah, on a hill." (Le Strange; 1966..pg 179)...

Ash- Shamaka.....aka: KABALAH...(48E 42N)...On the Caspian Sea where the Caucasus Mountains meet the sea, in the Shirvan province is the capital Ash-Shamakha, near the famous port of Darband. In the mountains near Darband was the ancient fortress of Kabalah, on a hill, near the current Soviet border. north of the port of Baku. Location of a great castle called Kal'ah Taj. The remains of a mighty castle (kal'ah), a 'mother of castles' situated on the great Tarum River that flowed from the mountains of Tarum in northern Persia. Like Samiran, its site remains unidentified. On its walls were lions of gold. The ancient fortress of Kabalah near Darband is more than once mentioned in the campaigns of Timur. Le Strange, G...."The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate"...1966

ASH SHIZ...."Median city. Fire temple was the source of the fire for all the rest of the fire temples in Persia. Great horses. Great Palace built by King Kay-Khusraw." (Le Strange: 1966..pg 224)...

ASSUR...(Asshur)..Near the modern Kileh-Sherghat on the Tigris, 60 miles south of Neneveh...Fall of Assyris in 612 to Medes. Median Empire. (Phillips: 1965..pg 128)..."The Assyrian empire was overthrown late in the 7th C BC. Assur, the city god of the first capital of Assyria and the protector of the Royal House was a sun god. Nimrud was a later capital of Assyria. First capital was Assur. Nimrud was a later capital. Assur was a warrior god. A man with a bow was often beside the solar disk. Ancient temple of the Sun at Sippar, the original home of Shamash. Restored by Nabonidus of the Babylonians who was captured by Cyrus." (Hawkes: 1962)

BALANJAR....the first Khazar capital identified with the archaelogical site of Verkhneye Chir-Yurt until the 720's when the Khazars transferred their capital to Samandar.

BALKH...(Bactra)...(67E..36N)..."Mother of Cities'. A beautiful city in northeastern Persia. Four leagues to the mountains called Jabal Ku. Had 7 gates. Destroyed by the Turks in 1155 AD. Rebuilt. Destroyed by Mongols in 1220. Great Fire Temple. Shrine to rival the Ka'abah in Mecca. Castle was called Kal'ah Hinduwan. (Castle of teh Hindus). Balkh is currently an important town in modern Afghanistan." (Le Strange: 1966..pg 423)..."Balkh is a large and magnificent city. It was here that Alexander married the daughter of Darius." (Marco Polo in Waugh: 1984..pg 42).."the Saka rulers left India and returned to Balkh"..(Soucek..pg 19)..

BARIKOY...In Swat, Pakistan...the ancient castle of Bir

BORSIPPA....(modern Birs-Nimrud) was a building in 7 platforms coloured similarly to Ecbatana (Rawlings: Heordotus)...

BUKHARA....(64E..39N)..."the most beautiful city in Persia. (Waugh: 1984..pg 11)...

CRESIPHON...(33N...44E)..."Yasdgard left the ruined royal city on the Tigris with the advance of the Arabs and fled to Hulwan, not far from Jalula (present day Khanaqin). The victory of Nihavand in 622 AD marked the beginning of the dissolution of teh Sasanian empire.".....In Iran, the great Sassanian dynasty collapsed in the 7th century under the Arab onslaught. Yazdgard fled the royal city of Cresiphon and the Arab victory of Nihavand in 622 AD marked the beginning of the dissolution of the Sassanian empire..."Yasdgard left the ruined royal city on the Tigris with the advance of the Arabs and fled to Hulwan, not far from Jalula (present day Khanaqin)...."the Moslems called Ctesiphon by the name Madain. On the Tigres, the chief city of the province and winter capital of the Sassanian kings. Ctesiphon and Seleucia were founded in 300 BC. Great Sassanian plalace ruins still exist." (LeStrange: 1966)

DARABJIRD...."In Parthia, the circular city has walls marking a concentric circle with the gates the four points of the compass." (Sacral Kingship: 1959..pg 481)..."the city was circular, having four gates. A rocky hill in the center. In was in ruins by 1200 AD." (LeStrange: 1966..pg 288)...

DARBAND... (Derbent)...(48E 42N)..."On the Caspian Sea where the Caucasus Mountains meet the sea, in the Shirvan province is the capital Ash-Shamakha, near the famous port of Darband. (Arabs called Darband 'Bab-al-Abwab'. In the mountains near Darband was the ancient fortress of Kabalah, near the current Soviet border. River Samur. Darbent" (LeStrange..1966..pg 181)...

DELPHI...in Greece...(22E..38N)...site of the sacred meteoric stone the Omphalos....

ECBATANA.(Hamadan)..(48E..35N)...(Herodotus: 800 BC)...Capital of rich province in northern Persia. Surrounded by mountain ranges. Near the Tarum River. Eastward was the Great Desert of Persia. Capital was Hamadan (Ecbatana)..."Ecbatana, a circular city. Strong walls one within the other, seven in all and within the final circle the royal palace (kal'ah). The highest and innermost wall was lined with gold. The next outer wall was lined with silver. The next wall was painted orange. The next blue. The next red. The next black. And the outermost and lowest wall was painted white. The king in the inner circle was seen by no one and all business was transacted by messengers." (Grene: "Herodotus History"..1987..pg 81)...Hamadan was rebuilt after the Moslem invasion but was again destroyed during the Mongol invasion of 1220 AD. Twenty four subdistricts. In the middle of the city stood the ancient castle (Kal'ah). Twenty four subdistricts in the 12th century. The city was 6 miles across. Southwest of Hamadan rose the great mountain of Alvand, or Arvand, summit always covered in snow." (LeStrange: 1966..pg 194)...."There may have been another Ecbatana in Media Atropatene (Azerbijan) at a place called Takht-i-Suleiman (Ganzaca), where extensive ruins are still visible. (Bunbury: 1959...pg 258)..."The royal palace of Agbatana is said by Polybius to be 4/5ths of a mile in circumference." (Rawlins: Herodotus)

EMESA..."At Emesa in Syria there was a large black meteoric stone which bore the Phoenician name of Elagabalus. It was considered to be an image of the sun. The stone was moved to Rome to the site of the ancient Roman god Orcus, by Elagabalus." (Hawkes: 1962..pg 195)...

FIRUZABAD...(Gur)(28N..52E)...Photo of ruins in Frye: 1963..."Circular city in the heart of Persis. A gate at each of the four directions. Residence of the Sassanian dynasty. Aerial photo of the ruins." (Sacral Kingship: 1959..pg 482)..."Ancient Persians called it Jur. Built by King Ardashir (the first Sasanian King) around an artificial mound. In the 10th century was as large as Istakhr. Beautiful gardens. Jur was beseiged by Alexander the Great. Celebrated fire temple." (Le Strange: 1966..pg 255)..."Firuzabad was a Tarum capital. Fortress was called Kal'ah Taj. Great Castle of Sham Irun. In 943 Ad it was the stronghold of the Daylamite Kings. The Sham Irun had 'lions of gold' and the 'sun and moon' on its walls. In 1046 it was the cpaital of Tarum in Daylam. It was in ruins in the 13th century. It was the 'mother of castles ' situated on the great Tarum river. It's site is yet unidentified." (Le Strange: 1966..pg 227)...

FIRUZKUH......(65E..34N)(36N..53E?)......"Ghuristan attained its greatest splendor in 1148-1215 during the Sam Dynasty. Their great capital was Biruzkuh (Firuzkuh)(Turquoise Mountain) an immense fortress in the mountains, site unknown. Great mountainous region and source of many great rivers. Murghab River. Headwaters of the Hari River. Castle was called Kal'ah Khastar. Bamiyan. Herat, rich city of 400,000 people in the 12th century. Great Buddhist sculptures at Bamiyan.Bactria. The city of Bamiyan was the capital of a great district and a great Buddhist center long before the days of Islam. Great sculpture. The Ghurid princes were defeated in 1215 AD and the dynasty disappeared a few years later with the Mongol invasion. Destroyed by Ghengis Khan in 1222 AD. The great castles (kal'ah) mentioned in its history seem to have disappeared. " (Le Strange: 1966..pg 418)...."Subjugation of the mountainous region of Ghur required great effort of the part of the Mongols. The mongols gradually adopted the Iranian language. The Hazaras are Mongolian in origin but Iranian by speech. Between Harat and Qandahar. On the upper reaches of the Murghab River live the Mongols who speak Persian. There is a road from Badakhshan to Tibet." (Barhtold: 1984..pg 83)...

GANZAK.....(Shiz)...Photo of ruins in Frye: 1963....Ancient circular city in Azerbaijan. Sacred place in Median or pre-Median times.

GARTOK...Gesar epic...(David-Neel...1981..pg 242)...

HIRAQLA....(34E..37N)...(Eregli)..."Persian circular city Harun al-Rashids." Aerial photo of the ruins. (Sacral Kingship: 1959..pg 483)..."32 miles from the Tamarisk Valley is Hiraklah (later: Arakliyah, the Greek Heraclia), the town which Harun-ar-Rashid took by storm. Near Tarsus and the Cilician Gates." (Le Strange: 1966..pg 134)...

ITIL....(Atil) on the edge of the Volga River. The name Itil designated the Volga in the mideval age. It was the Khazar capital from 750 AD to 950 AD. Itil was the administrative center of Khazar kingdom and was next to Khazaran, the trading center. The kings palace was located on an island nearbye, which was surrounded by a brick wall. Their diet was fish and vegetables. This was an important Silk Route city.

KALACH PALACE...Assyrian city which maintained the primeval ground plan of the Oriental military camp, which is circular." (Sacral Kingship: 1959..pg 482)

KALA ATASH..."castle of fire worshippers" (Marco Polo in Waugh: 1984..pg 29)...

KALAH......One of the most magnificent capitals of antiquity. ....(also Nimrud)...ancient Assyrian City near Nimeveh, built around 1300 BC. by Shalmaneser I...abandoned, then rebuilt as a royal residential city about 880 BC...excavations revealed much monumental material....Nineveh was the splendid capital of the Assyrian Empire. Conquering Medes and Chaldeans swept over the city in 606 BC and made it a desolate waste.. The great palaces of Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal...thousands of tablets of their libraries have been deciphered. ...The mounds extend for 15 miles along the Tigris, opposite the modern city of Mosul, represent the also the cities of Dur-Sargon and Kalah. Ninevah existed as early as 2000 BC and was chiefly the creation of Sennacherbi (705-681 BC) who walled and fortified it for two and 1/2 miles along the Tigris, building a great new palace and laying out extensive gardens.......(Comptons 1934 Edition).

KABALAH....(48E..42N)..."In the mountains near Darband was the fortress of Kabalah, on a hill. North of the port of Baku. The Arabs called Darband (Bab-al-Abwab)." (le Strange:1966..pg 181)...A second TARUM RIVER in ancient Persia...near the Caspian Sea. A ring of mountains surrounding the small kingdoms of ancient Persia. North of Hagmatan. Location of a great castle called Kal'ah Taj. Had 'lions of gold' on its walls. Tributary of the Safid River in the Elburz Mountains. North of the ancient city of Ray. South of the ancient city of Kabalah. (LeStrange: 1966..pg 227))...On the Caspian Sea where the Caucasus Mountains meet the sea, in the Shirvan province is the capital Ash-Shamakha, near the famous port of Darband. In the mountains near Darband was the ancient fortress of Kabalah, on a hill, near the current Soviet border. north of the port of Baku. Location of a great castle called Kal'ah Taj. The remains of a mighty castle (kal'ah), a 'mother of castles' situated on the great Tarum River that flowed from the mountains of Tarum in northern Persia. Like Samiran, its site remains unidentified. On its walls were lions of gold. The ancient fortress of Kabalah near Darband is more than once mentioned in the campaigns of Timur.
Le Strange, G...."The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate"...1966

200 B.C - 400 A.D Kabala is a capital of Caucasian Albania
400-600 A.D. Barda becomes capital of Caucasian Albania in VI century A.D.
629 A.D. Army of Kok-Turk Empire and Khazars enter Azerbaijan (Albania), defeating Persians. Azerbaijan is declared to be "eternal possesion" of Turks. The capital of Albania - Kabala renamed into Khazar. Albanian nobility and clergyman escape from Barda to the Albanian stronghold - Mountaineous Karabagh. [Source: "History of Albans" by Moisey Kalankatly] The next year both withdraw from Azerbaijan due to internal strife within Empire.
1221-1227 Georgian feudals occupy Sheki and Kabala, but later those cities are liberated and again become part of Shirvan
1755 Sheki khan Haji Chelebi conquers Kabala and Sheki sultanates, but defeated in wars with other khanates.

KARAKORAM....Uigur capital in Northern Mongolia until 840 AD. On the Orkhon River. (Chadwick: 1969..pg 8)

KAYSARIYAH....(39N..35E)...(Caesarea Mazaka, of Cappadocia).."The chief city east of the Karaman frontier. Mt Arjaish (Argaeus, Erciyas Dagi)...is near Kaysariyah. A great town with a castle at the foot of the extremely high mountain, whose summit is always covered in snow. On the summit was a great church."

KHOTAN...(Li Yul)..(37N...80E)....near the Tarim River..."Khotan (kamsadesa, Li Yul) an ancient city-state in Central Asia, beyond the Karakorum Range. The city has been buried for centuries near the village known as Yotkan."...(Kongtrul: 1995..pg 153)

KILAT...(Qazvin)...(36N..49E)..."Another castle (kal'ah) of this district was Kilat,in the Tarum Mountains between Kazvin and Khalkhal (49E...38N).... It occupied the summit of a mountain. This castle belonged to the chief, but like Samiran its site remains unidentified." (Le Strange: 1966..pg 227)...

KUBIA......"Umai's village of Kubia is in the Altaic Mountains near Shuranak. Nearest city is Biisk which is near Novosibirsk." (Kharatidi; 1996)....."Denisova's cave, one of the best known archaelogical sites in Altai traces human life in the region to 300,000 BC...(Kharatidi: 1996)...

LAMPAKA...(33N..70E)..."On the Kabul River above Jalalabad. Location of an Ashoka Stone with inscriptions. The frontier between the Greeks and Candragupta along the Kunar River." (ActaIranica: 1977)...

LARSA...(31N..45E)...Capital of the Elamite and seat of Sumerian Sun worship. (Mackenzie: pg 240)

MADHYADESA.."the Kalachakra was taught at Madhyadesa" (Roerich: 1974..pg 756)...

MERV...(38N..61E)...(Gyaur-Kala)..."Manichaean center on the Amu Darya (Oxus). Also in Balkh and Zamm (Zamb)." (Litvinsky: 1992..pg 417)...

MITRA VIHARA....Atisha visited Mitra Vihara near the Nepalese Therai. (Lopez: 1997..pg 174)...

MULTAN...(72E...30N)...'the famous city of Multan was a gateway to India for Iranian cultural influences. The extreme climatic conditions prevailing there would have made the worship of the Sun God especially appropiate. An annual festival called Sambapurayatra was celebrated by the people of Multan. Multan was also called: Kasypapura, then Hamsapura, then Bhagapura, then Sambapura, then Mulasthana ('original place'). At the site of Multan/Mitravana there was a sun sanctuary as early as the 6th century BC, which might have come under the control of the Persian Magi w/ the conquest of the Indus Valley in 518 BC by the Persian King Darius." (Humbach: 1978..pg 236)...

OZ....(50N..56E)...

PALMYRA..."Palmyra was the center of Syrian sun worship. Razed by Aurelian in 272 AD. Temple of the Sun was restored in 274 AD."...

PARSOGARD..........(54E-30N) Photo of ruins in Frye: 1963....was one of the capitals of the Persian Empire: Pasargadae (Greek) or Parsogard (Persian)...Bar-po-so-brgyad (Tibetan). In 550 BC this city became the capital of the 1st two Persian emperors." (Kuznetsov: 1970..pg 565)...."Contained the tomb of the great Persian King Cyrus. The tomb was on a Swastika Hill (representing the sun). Nine stories tall. Crystal columns. Four sacred gardens: Lotus, Wheel, Yungdrung, and Precious." (Kuznetsov: 1970..pg 570)..."born in a palace south of Mount Yungdrung Gutseg in 1857 B.C." (Wangyal: 1993..pg 29)..."Shen rab was born in Sam bha la (sTag gzigs) in the west in the town called Yans pa can, in the dwelling place of the 33 Gods, the palace called Barpo so brgyad". (Kvaerne: 1971..pg 220)..."Pasargadae is a holy place for the followers of the ancient traditions of Iran." (Kuznetsov: 1970..pg 568)..."Into Phar-po-so-brgyad, the castle of happiness and blessing. Phar: other side...pho: change...so: watches over...brgyad: overcomes faults..." (Francke: 1950..pg 166 & 183))..."Shenrab Miwo was born in the Barpo Sogye Palace to the south of Mount Yungdrung." (Wangyal)..."To the south of Mount gYung drung dgu brtsegs is the palace Bar-po so-brgyad, the birthplace of Shenrab." (Karmay: 1975..pg 173)..."30 km NE of Persepolis. Has a large irrigated lotus garden with a citadel (castle, kal'ah) in the center 1,900 meters high." (Wiesehofer: 1996)

PERSEPOLIS...Photo of ruins in Frye: 1963...

RAY...(52E..36N)...Northern Persia. Northeast of Hamadan. (Rhages, Ar-Rayy). Destroyed by teh Mongols in 1220. Near Tehran. 100 miles SE of the great mountain chain of Daylam." (Le Strange: 1966..pg 214)...

SAMANDAR...a coastal town on the north Caucasus noted for tis beautiful gardens and vineyards. In 750 AD the capital of Khazaria was moved to Itil (Atil).

SAMARKAND...(39N..66E)...Alexander stayed a year in Samarkand (then known as Marakanda) because it was so beautiful....As a prehistoric settlement was known as Afrosiab...Ancient Greek name was Maracanda...destroyed by Mongols in 1219 AD...

SARAY...Lower Volta city which was founded in 1242 AD and was the capital of the Golden Horde...

SHAMIRAN....(Samiran)(37N...49E)......"Capital of Tarum in Daylam in 1046 AD. In ruins in 13th century. Great castle (kal'ah). In 943 AD it was one of the chief strongholds of the Daylamite Kings and contained 2850 houses. The walls of the castle had 'lions of gold.' It lay 9 miles west of the junction of the Shah Rud and the Safid Rud on the high road to Sarav in Adharbayjan. It was finally destroyed in the 1200's by the chief of the Alamut. It is not evident today. The Tarum (Tarm, Tarumayn)river in the Jibal Province was a right bank affluent of the Safid Rud." Le Strange: 1966..pg 227)...In the Ghur Region there appears another Shamiran. "Six miles to the north of Herat (35N..60E) is a great castle called Shamiran (Kal'ah Amkalchah). Destroyed by Timur in the 14th century. This area was visited by an Egyptian Pharaoh. (LeStrange: 1966..pg 226 & 417)...

SIPPAR...seat of Akkadian sun worship and the Sun God Babbar (Semitic: Shamash)(Mackenzie: pg 240)...

SUSA...(32N..48E)...Photo of ruins in Frye: 1963..."the country which is currently called Khuzistan. The Elamite city of Susa (Shushan)"..(32N-48E)..(Kuznetsov: 1970..pg 566)...."Hos-mo: the country of Hos or Susa. Originally the capital of the ancient state of Elam, and later one of the main cities of the Achaemenid empire."(Kuznetsov: 1970..pg 573)...'from Hos, from the six provinces of Hos-mo" (Francke: 1950..pg 163)......Cyrus the Great, Achaemenid Ruler, conquered Asia Minor and in 539 BC occupied Babylon together with the Fertile Crescent. Susa was his capital.Cyrus I was also known as Kura-as Sar.....[The lotus blossom on the tomb of Cyrus dated to 540 BC seems identical to the ring of petals in the Shambhala cosmology. One of the gardens surronding the tomb was a lotus garden.]..(Acta: 1984..pg 68)(Bryant: 1992..pg 65)...

SULTANIYAH...(36N...48E)..."After the Mongol invasion of 1222 AD and the establishment of the Il-Khans in Persia, Sultaniyah became their capital." (LeStrange:1966..pg 227)...

TARA...(53N...6W)...site of the ancient kings of Ireland...the Lia Fail: a magical stone) stood there that was brought to Ireland by the Tuatha De Danann (legendary god-like people) 20 miles NW of Dublin...there are 70 know 'sheelas' (feminine fertility carvings) in Ireland...

TRALETI....Kurgan archaelogical site between the Caspian and Black Sea dating to 3000 BC

TUN HUANG.....(Dunhuang)...An ancient settlement on the convergence of the Northern and Southern Silk Routes. An oasis town in the western Gansu province in the Gobi desert. The 30,000 Tun Huang documents discovered by Stein and Pelliot in East Turkestan in 1907 are ancient source materials for the historical studies of Central Asia (Karmay: 1988, Chapter Two)....480 caves founded in 366 AD...."The Dzogchen text: 'Cuckoo of Pure Consciousness' was discovered among the Tun Huang manuscripts"....

UCH-TEPE...Kurgan archaelogical site between the Caspian and Black Sea dating to 3000 BC

VIKINGS..."The great Danish Viking castles Trelleborg (55N...13E)...and Aggersborg (57N...9E)...from the 10th century AD show the same circular geometric plan as the cosmic city of the Orient. " Aerial photo." (Sacral Kingship: 1959..pg 489)...

XANADU..."royal palace of the Kublai Khan" (Marco Polo in Waugh: 1984..pg 62)...

ZARANJ...(31N..62E)..."The capital of Sistan. Sistan (Sakistan) Land of the Saka. Persians of the earliest Aryan type. Zaranj was a 'London of the East'. The homes, like other towns in Central Asia were built from clay in the form of archlike vaults." (Barthold: 1984..pg 69)..."Zaranj, the capital of Sistan was a great city. Destroyed by Timur (1383 AD). Near modern Nasratabad. Strongly fortified castle (kal'ah)." (Le Strange: 1966..pg 337)...

ZAITUN...."A Manichean shrine at Hua-pi'o Hill near Zaitun in China houses the only known statue of Mani as the 'Buddha of Light'." (Acta: 1985...pg 418)...

."A glimpse into ancient Persian cosmology is the royal city of Hagmatan (Hamadan, Agbatana, Ekbatana)[50E 32N] built in 800 BC by King Deioces (Daiukku) of the Medes. Seven concentric circles within walls, each higher than the preceding wall as one passed toward the center hill where the palace stood. The 7th and highest wall was painted gold (sun)...the 6th was painted silver (moon)...the 5th wall was painted orange...the fourth was painted blue...the third was painted red...the second black...and the outermost wall was painted white. Orange was the fiery morning 'asman', blue the noonday 'asman', red for the evening asman. The array of colors chosen for the encircling walls of the royal city was similar to that of the robe of warriorhood and sovereignty described in the Denkart."

Around the base of the sacred mountain in the center are literally hundreds of cities, palaces, and temples, but among them there are four, which are especially important. To the east of the mountain is the shining white temple of Shampo Lhatse (sham-po lha rtse). To the south is the great palace of Barpo Sogyad (bar-po so-brgyad) where Tonpa Shenrab`s had lived and he was born. To the west is the palace of Trimon Gyalzhad (khri-smon rgyal-bzhad), where the chief queen of Tonpa Shenrab, Hoza Gyalzhadma (Hos-bza` rGyal-bzhad-ma) had lived and where three of his children were born, namely, Tobu (gTo-bu), Chyadbu (dPyad-bu), and Ne`u-chen. And to the north is the palace of Khong-ma Ne`u-chung where another one of his queens, Poza Thangmo (dPo-bza` thang-mo) lived and three more of his children were born, namely, Lungdren (Lung-`dren), Gyuddren (rGyud-`dren), and Ne`u-chung. Surrounding this innermost region in every direction is an intermediate region with twelve great cities, four in each of the four cardinal directions. One of these cities located in the west is Gyalag Odma (rgya-lag `od-ma) where the fabled king and disciple of Tonpa Shenrab, Kongtse Trulgyi Gyalpo (Kong-tse `phrul gyi rgyal-po) lived. He was important for the transmission of astrological and magical teachings coming from the Master. The miraculous temple erected by this king on an artificial island built by the Rakshasa demons in the western sea was also very important since it was here that certain teachings of Tonpa Shenrab were written down and deposited for safe keeping. These texts have been preserved there until this very day. This second region is completely surrounded by two more concentric rings, an outer region and a border region. As said above, these regions and their subdivisions are separated by rivers and other bodies of water. The entire land is in turn surrounded by an ocean called Mukhyud Dalwa (mu-khyud bdal-ba`i rgya-mtsho), “the wide-spreading enclosing ocean”. Again, this sea is surrounded by a mighty wall of snow-capped mountains called Walso Gangri Rawa (dbal-so gangs ri`i ra-ba), causing the imperishable sacred land to be impenetrable to any intrusion from the outside world.

ANCIENT KALAH Part 2

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CABALA

Cabala is one of the oldest and distinguished towns of ancient Azerbaijan. Its name in the form of Cabalaca is firstly mentioned in the written sources of the second half of the I-st century in the "Natural History" bearing the character of the encyclopaedia by Gaius Plinius the Elder.

The archaeological investigations confirmed that the ruins of the ancient town of Cabala were located near the Chukhur-Cabala village, Gabala district, Azerbaijan, at the height between Kara-chai (Cabala-chai) and Jourly-chai (Kala-chai) rivers. The area of the ruins of ancient town is 25 ha (250.000 sq. meters). The ditch, which was digged in ancient times, divides the ancient town into two parts. The local people call the territory of the ancient town, which is to the north of the ditch, Selbir, and to the south - Kala.

Later on at the so called Chaggaly talasy (Jackal's glade) the third part of the town was found and then the following territories were revealed: Kyamal-tepe, External town and the Block of the Artisans.

Selbir is the most ancient and important territory of the town, it existed from the III-rd century up to the XII-th century A.D. The overland parts of the fortress walls are preserved till now. The history of Kala covers a period of approximately from the I-th to the middle of the XVIII-th century. During the last years the materials of antique time are revealed here. In our days we can see the overland part of five larae semicircular towers and the fortress walls between then, which sorrounded Kala from the south. The foundation of the tower and the walls are built of the finished quadrangular soft motared stones, and the tipper part is of burnt bricks. Kyamal-tepe is a hill situated opposite the south gates of Kala. In the Middle Ages a religious center of the town Juma-mosque was erected here. The so called Bayir shahar (External town) territory is at the south foot of Kyamal-tepe. Here at the area of approximately 10 ha the ruins of settlements were found. Kala, sited approximately 50 m of the south walls, is a territory of the inseparable part of the town.

Chaggally is 3-4 km to the east of Cabala ruins between Jourly-chai and Gochalan-chai rivers. Some scientists consider Chaggally area to be a part of the ancient town, where the temples, market square were situated, the others suppose Chaggalty to be the ruins of the town itself. The last point needs to be seriously justified. The Block of the Artisans is approxiniatelv 1 km to the north-west of Selbir and Kala, at the district called Yanyg yer (Burnt land). The area of this territory is about 10 ha. In the course of the archaeological excavations two large production furnaces were found here. One of them was used for burning the bricks, another one - for pottery. One can find a lot of such production furnaces in Yanyg yer.

A large part of the archaeological investigations was conducted at Selbir and Kala territory. The cultural stratum of Selbir is 3 m thick. There are three cultural strata here: the first one refers generally to antique age and is dated to the III-rd century B.C.-V-th century A.D., the second one - to the VI-X-th centuries, and the third one - to the XI-XII-th centuries. The thickness of the cultural stratum at Kala territory is not less than 5 m. Life in Kala was not interrupted. It niav be confirmed that beginning from the I-st centurv and up to the middle of the XVIII-th century the habitable beds of four historical ages were found. These four beds refer to the ancient period, early Middle Ages, Middle Ages and late Middle Ages.

CABALA, III-rd CENTURY B.C. - III-rd CENTURY A.D.

Gaius Plinius Secundus in his "Natural History" calls Cabala as C a b a l a c a. The Poman author writes that Cabalaca is a predominant town of Albania. No doubt that Cabala was a fortress at that time. The fortress walls of Selbir, excavated by the archaeologists are dated from the A.D. eve or at least the I-st century A.D. This is justified bv the word "oppidum" (the fortress, the fortification place), which was used bv Plinius conformably to Cabala. In the antique sources both forms-Cabalaca and Chabala are met. Cabala was probably a capital up to the second half of the V-th century. In the course of excavations in Selbir in the lower beds of the I-st cultural stratum the fragments of the crossed walls and many large (length-67, width-45-36 cm, weight-12-15 kg) roofing tiles, the bath sepulchre on the remains of the foundation of the dwelling house (1-st century B.C. - I-st centurv A.D.) and others were found. This information makes us to refer the first constructional beds of the town to the A.D. eve.

The main part of the archaeological material found in Selbir dating from the ancient period consists of the fragments of the earthenware. They are one-handle jugs (black, rose and red in colour), vessels on one and three legs, a milk-can, vessels for various use and so on. The analogical vessels were firstly discovered in Yaloilutepe, 7-8 km from Kala. These vessels are considered to be the most characteristic material of Yaloilutepe culture (III-rd - I-st centuries B.C.) The discovery of a great number of such vessels evidences that in the III-rd - I-st centuries B.C. Cabala was a busy town. The fortress walls around Cabala justify that it was really a town.

The ancient inhabitants of Cabala were acquainted with money and used them beginning from the third century B.C. Both foreign money and many local coins were found here. Rests of grains, iron ploughs, millstones, mortars, fruit stones, large jugs for storage of grain, fruit and wine, many fragments of various earthenware, bones of neat and small cattle, many decorations, iron weapons (arrow and spear heads, knives, daggers, ancient coins, bulls and other rests of material culture) evidence that the antique period in Cabala was characterized by agriculture, cattle-breeding, gardening, crafts and trade. The religion views of the ancient inhabitants of Cabala were closely connected with fireworshipping.

CABALA, IV-VIII-th CENTURIES

In the sources of the early Middle Ages Cabala was called as Kapalak, Kapaga, Khuala and so on. Beginning from the IV-th century Christianity was widely spread in Cabala, here was situated the episcopal pulpit (episcopacy).

In the VI-VIII-th centuries the region of Cabala was frequently raided bv Khazars. They ruled here during almost a century and made Cabala their administrative centre. The Arabians, who invaded the town later on, knew it as Cabala-Khazar. In 737 at the time of caliph Mervan's rule the Arabians repulsed the Khazars for the last time and announced their domination here.

In the period of the early Middle Ages Cabala consisted of Selbir and Kala. Both parts of the town were defenced by a common wall. The cultural strata of Selbir and Kala of the VI-VII-th centuries are not rich in archaeological materials. But in the habitable bed of the VIII-th century many constructional rests and other archaeological materials were revealed. The secret water-lines consisting of earthenware water-tubes were discovered. In the course of the archaeological excavations various hearths, tendirs, pits, sewerages were found here. All these help to imagine the mode of life of the ancient Cabala inhabitants.

Beginning from the end of the VII-th century the inhabitants of Cabala made the bread in tendirs. In the town cultural stratum of the early Middle Ages many bones of neat and small cattles, grains of rye and wheat, stones of cornel, alycha, shells of nuts and fyndyk, jeweller's instruments (moulds for earrings, rings, medallions, crucible for melting metals, blow-lamp, jeweller's spoon and others), hearth and instruments of pharmaceutist, decorations, metal objects, residues of iron and glass articles production, spindles, metal coins and others were revealed. These rests of the material culture evidence that in the economic life of the early Middle Age town inhabitants an important place took pottery, jeweller's art, pharmaceutics, glass-blower work, weaving, metal and stone articles production and the trade along with agriculture, cattle-breeding, gardening.

At the end of the VIII-th century a new step was made in the pottery: a potter's wheel appeared and the production of the first glazed earthenware started. Beginning from the VIII-th century Arabian coins appeared in Cabala. The Arabian coins, widely spread at the Near and Middle East, made easier the foreign trade relations of Cabala. As it was mentioned, beginning from the IV-th century Cabala was a centre of Christianity. In spite of this the Sasanids with a special zeal propagated here the Zoroastrianism. From the VIII-th century Mohammedanism began to spread here. This is justified by Juma-mosque built on Kyamal-tepe.

CABALA, IX-XIII-th CENTURIES

At the end of the IX-th-beginning of the X-th century Cabala became an independent feudal state. It was ruled by Anbasa al-Avar. The boundaries of his country were strengthened by fortresses. At the time of Abd al-Bar's (the son of Anbasa al-Avar) rule (981-1025) Shirvanshah struggled for Cabala during many years. At last after Ezid ibn Ahmad had taken Gurzul (Kurzul) fortress -the last asylum of Abd al-Bar, Cabala was vassalaged by Shirvanian rulers. This state was preserved till Mongolian invasion.

Ibn al-Asir mentions that in the period of Mongolian invasion Cabala was raided by Kipchaks. The archaeological investigation in Cabala showed that till the end of the X-th century it still consisted of Selbir and Kala. Both territories were surrounded by the safe fortress walls. But the Mussulman sepulture, which was found in Selbir and dated from the XI-th century, and a rich habitable bed above it evidenced that in the XI-th century life in Selbir was stopped and recovered onlv in the XII-th century. But the town life in Kala was not interrupted.

In general in the IX-XIII-th centuries Cabala flourished as a feudal town. At this particular time the External town and the Block of the Artisans appeared and prospered. In the economical life of the town along with agriculture and gardening, potterv, jewelier's art, glass-blower work, manufacture of silk, weaving and trade plaved a great role.

At this time behind the fortress walls such Mussulman grave yards as Shehidlyar, Mujeohur piri, Sarylyg piri appeared. Juma-mosque still remained on Kyamal-tepe.

CABALA, XIV-th-FIRST HALF OF XVIII-th CENTURIES

The written sources mention that in 1385 Cabala became a military camp of Timur. The poet Badr Shirvani (1387-1450), who lived and worked in Cabala for a long period of time, wrote that at the beginning of the XV-th centurv Shujaeddin Ardashir ruled in Cabala. At the time of his rule Cabala prospered.

In 1500 Shah Ismail Safavi entered Shirvan, Cabala became an asylum of Shirvanshah Farrukh Yasar. In the XVI-th centurv and the beginning of the XVII-th century Cabala became one of sanjags (regions), established in Shirvan as a result of wars between Turkev and Safavids. At this time the fortress walls of Cabala were thoroughly restored.

Cabala didn't lose its economical, political and military importance in the first half of the XVIII-th centurv. The ruler of Cabala at this time was Surkhai-khan. In the struggle against Surkhai-khan Iranian shah Nadir twice (1734 and 1742) conquered Cabala. These actions absolutely destroyed the town.

In the XIV-XVIII-th centuries the ancient town Cabala included mainly Kala, Kyamal-tepe and External town. Selbir and the Block of the Artisans stopped their existence.

The archaeological materials confirmed, that the life in Cabala (Kala) stopped in the XVIII-th century. The life was concentrated only on the territory of the External town. At that time the External town was called Chukhur-Cabala due to its geographical position. Here the life stopped in the 30-s of the XIX-th centurv. Bewaring of Kara-chai river flooding the inhabitants left for the place, where they stay now, and called it also Chukhur-Cabala.

Text by Igrar Aliev & Firidun Gadirov

I noticed that your page bestquotes.html refers to the fortress Kabalah (Cabala, Qabala) which was once called "Khazar" (or so they say). I heard that this was inhabited by Khazars or Turks in the 7th century, but only temporarily. Some Khazar-Turk soldiers were buried there. It is briefly mentioned in Altstadt's History of Azerbaijan (Hoover Press) and on a website hosted in Azerbaijan (I think it's at http://www.culture.az, but I can't find the specific page right now). Findings from Kabala are contained in the History Museum of Azerbaijan, according to www.culture.az/museums/history/histor_e.htm Where else can we learn about Kabala?