Saturday, September 22, 2012

Ancient Kingdoms, Countries, Cultures, Clans A-K

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MAPS...The best research maps I have found of Tibet that are linguistically compatible with the Shambhala teachings are: "British Crown Copyright. Army Map Service. First survey of India Edition 1945. Series 1301. Sheet NH44 (NH45 Tsanpo,Asia)....1" = 16 miles"....Interesting Maps in "Hermann: An Historical Atlas of China...(1935/1966)....

ALEXANDER THE GREAT...(356-323 BC)..."Alexander of Macedonia shattered the power of the numerous petty kingdoms and tribal oligarchies of the Punjab in North-west India and created a political vacuum that was exploited by Chandragupta Maurya, who actually met Alexander in 327 BC. Chandragupta's grandson, Ashoka, ascended to the peacock throne of the Mauryas in 269 BC.".....Alexander adopted Persian royal dress and attempted to impose the Persian court ceremonial of prostration (proskynesis) on the Greeks (to no avail). His attempts at a racial fusion between the Greeks and the Orientals was also futile. He was buried in a crystal coffin in Egypt, location still unknown. His armies mutinied in India, desiring to return to Persia. (Encyclopedia Britannica)...Alexander spent a year in Samarkind (then Marakanda) because 'it was so beautiful'....."After the reign of Alexander the Great, Mithra came to be worshipped in all the Oriental Kingdoms. By the 2nd Century AD it had spread throughout the Greek and Roman empires. (Canney: pg 244)..."At Nysa on the Caspian sea, Alexander saw the most sought after horses in Asia, the Nysaean steeds." (Newark: 1989..pg 27)..."the most important biography of Alexander is the Pseudo-Calliethenes which dates from 300 AD. Alexander was said to have seen the sun rise in both the East and the West." (Curtis: 1993..pg 58)...

ALTAIC PEOPLES......(85E..50N)..."the Altaic language is related to Mongolian and to the Tungus language spoken in other parts of Siberia. The ancient Turkic languages also belong to the Altaic language family.' (Kharatidi: 1996..pg 203)....."The lore of the deu made use of secret languages to transmit knowledge. Deu (lde'u) is an ancient Tibetan term, possibly from the language of Shang Shung." (Norbu: 1995..pg 21)....The Finno-Ugric shamans of Siberia had sacred drums covered with cabalistic signs. The heart and lungs were the seat of the spirit in humans.....(Decker: 1989)...the word Kam first appears in teh Uighur text: 'Kudatku Bilik' in 1069 AD," (Chadwick: 1969..pg 235)..."the heads of the Asian pastoral tribes were the Wu-sun, the Huns, the Yue-chi, and the Wu-huan. In each tribe there were elders as well as warleaders." (Rudenko: 1970..pg 215)..."The royal tombs of Pazyryk in the Altai in the 5th-3rd Centuries BC. West of Lake Baikal. The bodies prove that Mongols were then mingling with Indo-European stock." (Hawkes: 1976..pg 178)..."People inhabiting the Altai in 200 BC had a similar manner of life to those occupying the steppes of Central Asia and the areas west of the Caspian Sea." (Rudenko: 1970..pg xxx)...

AMU DARYA...upper valleys of the Pamirs enabled Zoroastrian pckets to survive up to the present times...

ANCIENT KINGDOMS...."the Four Sons of Heaven, the rulers of the four great countries of the Asiatic world: China, India, Iran, Throm in the north with King Gesar." (Stein:1972, pg280)...Gesar's traditional four enemies were China to the East, India to the South, Tag zig (Persia?) to the west, and Hor to the North." (Norbu:1995, pg 225)..."In Jambudvipa there were six great countries where the true doctrine was propagated: India, Tibet, China, Khotan, Shambhala, and Kailash." (H.H. Dudjom Rinpoche (1904-1987): History of the Nyingma Lineage)......"Three priests were sent for from Kha che, Bru sha, and Shang shung." (Bansal: 1994..pg 41)...."the translators were from Tazig, Zhang Zhung, Sumpa (Shang Shung term for Amdo), China, and Khrom." (Wangyal: 1993..pg 32).... "Kashgar, Khotan, Karashahr, and Kucha (the four garrisons) were defeated by the Arabs in 751 and the whole of inner Asia was lost." (Knobloch: 1972..pg 224)...Four earthly paradises: Basrah, Damascus, Fars, Valley of Samarkand" (LeStrange: 1966..pg 47)

ANDRONOVO CULTURE..."Soviet archaeologists usually connect the Proto-Indo-Iranians with the Andronovo culture of Kazakhstan and Souther Siberia." (Burrow: 1973..pg 126)...

ARGIPPAEI..."Herodotus (5th Century BC) add that the Argippaei, north of the Scythians were virtuous, vegetarian peacemakers who have no warfare or weapons." (Piggott: 1985...pg 93)...

ASSYRIA...(called Sham on ancient maps)...excavation of the Dura-Europos Mithraeum in Syria...."The center of ancient horse rearing was Assyria." (Rudenko: 1970...pg 59)..."the Sacae assisted Cyrus in his war with the Assyrians".(Rudenko: 1970...pg 225)..."The black meteoric stone was shipped from the city of Emesa to Rome in 210 AD by the Syrian King Heliogabalus." (Vermaseren: 1963..pg 187)....."The Indo-European Mitanni with strong Mithraic worship controlled Assyria for a time.." (Mackenzie)....The Assyrians developed the use of calvary and mounted archers....Center of ancient thoroughbred horse breeding.

ASSYRIA...Fall of Assyris in 612 to Medes. Median Empire. (Phillips: 1965..pg 128)..."The Assyrian empire was overthrown late in the 7th C BC. Assur, the city god of the first capital of Assyria and the protector of the Royal House was a sun god. Nimrud was a later capital of Assyria. First capital was Assur. Nimrud was a later capital. Assur was a warrior god. A man with a bow was often beside the solar disk. Ancient temple of the Sun at Sippar, the original home of Shamash. Restored by Nabonidus of the Babylonians who was captured by Cyrus." (Hawkes: 1962)..Tel Brak temple in eastern Syria. Staring divine eye. (Gimbutas: 1989: pg 54)

AVARS...(Juan Juan)...followed the Hsiung Nu westward, settling in the Ukraine about 560 AD...They originated in NW China. They introduced the stirrup, which allowed easier hands-off horse riding in battle. Height under Kagan Bajan (565-602) eventually defeated by Charlemagne in 790 AD

AZTECS..."the chosen people of the Sun God would wander until they saw an eagle alight on a cactus with fruits red like human hearts. This would be Huitzlampa, the Land of the Sun." (Hawkes: 1962..pg 154)..."The great Aztec calendar stone in the National Museum in Mexico City...13' across...the eagle that soars...rings bearing solar rays and jewells...(Hawkes: 1962)...

BACTRIA.... (Bactra/Tukharistan)...semi mythical empire about 1000 BC....South of Lake Balkash. West of Pamirs....ruled by Greek Seleucids after Alexander..."Bactria was the center of the Kushan Kingdom. Walled palace cities existed in 900 BC near the present sites of Termez, Merv (Gyaur-Kala), Samarkand, Afrasiab and Bactra (Balk) in southern Bactria." (Gafurov:1968)......Bactria, also called Bactriana or Zariaspa, ancient country lying between the mountains of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) in what is now part of Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. Bactria was especially important between about 600 bc and about ad 600, serving for much of that time as a meeting place not only for overland trade between East and West but also for the crosscurrents of religious and artistic ideas. Bactria’s capital was Bactra, also called Bactra-Zariaspa (modern Balkh, Afghanistan). Bactria was a fertile country, and a profusion of mounds and abandoned.... the organized Bon religion traces itself from Shenrab (gShen-rab), a teacher from the fabled land of Olmo-lungring (‘Ol-mo lung-ring) on the eastern edge of Tagzig (sTag-gzig), who brought it to Zhang-zhung (Zhang-zhung) in the remote, distant past. Zhang-zhung was an ancient kingdom with its capital in western Tibet near the sacred Mount Kailash. Some modern Russian scholars, basing themselves on linguistic analysis, identify Olmo-lungring with Elam in ancient western Iran and Tagzig with Tajik, referring to Bactria.

BADAKHSHAN...(71E...37N)..."ruled by a hereditary dynasty descended from Alexander the Great and the daughter of Darius." (Marco Polo in Waugh: 1984..pg 35)...'Shambhala might have been near Badakshan and the Wakhan corridor"...

BUDII...."May be recognized in Herodotus as a Scythian tribe." (Rawlinson..pg 349)...

BURYIAT..."Both Buddhist and Bonpos had large monasteries in Tibet that drew from as far north as the Buryuiat region near Lake Baikal." (Lopez: 1997...pg 21)...

CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS...."70 different languages are spoken in the Caucasus Highlands. Many various tribes. (Le Strange: 1966..pg 180)..."The ancient fortress of Kabalah near Darband is more than once mentioned in the campaigns of Timur. (LeStrange: 1966..pg 181)...Caspian Sea is also called Bahr Khazar after the Khazar Kingdom to the north of it....

CELTS...Indo-Europeans who emerged in South Central Europe about 500 BC....In 335 B.C. Alexander asked the Celtic envoys what they feared most..."That the sky might fall on their heads" came the reply......emerged as a distinct people in the 8th Century BC.. the Arthurian and Grail legends (before they were transmuted into Christian wisdom) and the romance of Tristan and Iseult....reached apex in 300 BC...hundreds of names of their gods and goddesses are known to us...each clan had its local deities...a super-clan court met in Chartres, France (Gaul)...Epona, the horse goddess ranks high among the Celtic deities...Pagan rites continue to linger in modern Europe. Some people still make sunrise circuits of wells...(National Geographic...May 1977)...."Two noble classes: priests (druidum, druids) and warriors (equitum, equites). Both sacral and temporal forms of authority were fused in the Druids." (Lincoln: 1981..pg 138)....."(Druidae is Gaelic)...Dru-wid...dru=oak...wid= knowledge, to know, to see (as in the Sanskrit 'vid')...."Fear that the 'sky-roof' might fall was widespread among the Celtic peoples. Heaven is the sky (skv) that has been heaved up on the shoulders (latin: humerus..Gk: omos). The shoulders support the sky as a head. (Campbell: 1968...pg 111)

CHALDEANS..."By 800 BC the Chaldeans watched and recorded the movements of the sky."

CHILAS...in Gilgit

CHITRAL....in Afghanistan

CHINA...."The I-Ching appeared in its present form with 64 hexagrams during the reign of King Wen (1150 BC)..(Wilhelm: I-Ching..pg 15)Emperor Fu Hsui (2852 BC) was the first of the five mythical emperors of China...

CIMMERIANS....may have been related to some of the early Celts. Defeated by Scythians in 700 AD...

CLANS...."The earliest Shinto was a combination of the religious beliefs, rich in variety, of various clans. It contained mythology in which sympathetic magic, ritual, and animism were central."...(Jinja: 1958..pg 3)...

DARDS...northern Pakistan

DAYLAMITES...."Tarum in the Jibal was the original home of the Buyids or Daylamites." (Le Strange: 1966..pg 172)...

DERGE...."The King and Queen of the eastern Tibetan principality of Derge (Sde dge) and their meeting with Jigme Lingpa." (Lopez: 1997...pg 371)...

ELBURZ MOUNTAINS....."For more than a century after the Arab conquest of the rest of Persia, this region (Tabaristan) was independent in their mountain fortresses, and the Zoroastrian faith was dominant. A castle on the slopes of Demavend had never been taken for 3000 years until it was stormed by the Mongols in 1216 AD. It was 10 leagues from Ray and was the stronghold of the ancient Magian ruler of the country. Fortresses near Demavend with names such as Kal-ar, Kal-am, Kal-ur. (LeStrange: 1966...pg 371)...The Tarum River joined the Safid Rud just south of the Elburz Mountains..."Elburz (Alburz) a Persian word derived from two Zend words signifying "high mountain"...(Le Strange: 1966..pg 368)...

EGYPTIANS..."Akhenaten was the extraordinary young Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. Sun Hymn to Aten. Son of Amenophis III. Nefertiti. Married princes of Mitannian and Babylonian royal families." (Hawkes: 1962..pg 113)...."The ancient Egyptian king had the obligation to maintain a divine order called 'maat'. The king's 'Ka' or 'vital force' was highly protected." (Frankfort: 1948, pgs 61-78)

GOG and MAGOG...."The nations of" (Kuznetsov: 1970..pg 570)...

GREEKS AND ROMANS...."laid out their cities with some understanding of external drala...There was some power and wisdom in the Roman civilization which we should not overlook." (Trungpa: 1984..pg 111)...Homer composed the Illiad and Odyssey in the 8th Century BC. About the same time that Rome was founded. 500-50 BC was the Golden Age of Greece..."The Mithraic tradition thrived in Asia Minor and at it's center at Trebizond the Greeks identified him with Helios. It was here that Mithra acquired the pointed cap. See the Greek artists of the school of Perganum." (Hawkes: 1962..pg 182)...Mithras entered the Roman world in the 1st century BC. The great sun temple to Jupiter-Baal as the Sun, at Baaleck (Heliopolis), built during the 2nd century AD..."Plato idealized Sun worship and called the Sun the offspring of the first god." (Hawkes: 1962..pg 198)...

GHUR..."Subjugation of the mountainous region of Ghur required great effort of the part of the Mongols. The mongols gradually adopted the Iranian language. The Hazaras are Mongolian in origin but Iranian by speech. Between Harat and Qandahar. On the upper reaches of the Murghab River live the Mongols who speak Persian. There is a road from Badakhshan to Tibet." (Barhtold: 1984..pg 83)...(65E..34N)..."Ghuristan attained its greatest splendor in 1148-1215 during the Sam Dynasty. Their great capital was Biruzkuh (Firuzkuh)(Turquoise Mountain) an immense fortress in the mountains, site unknown. Great mountainous region and source of many great rivers. Murghab River. Headwaters of the Hari River. Castle was called Kal'ah Khastar. Bamiyan. Herat, rich city of 400,000 people in the 12th century. Great Buddhist sculptures at Bamiyan.Bactria. The city of Bamiyan was the capital of a great district and a great Buddhist center long before the days of Islam. Great sculpture. The Ghurid princes were defeated in 1215 AD and the dynasty disappeared a few years later with the Mongol invasion. Destroyed by Ghengis Khan in 1222 AD. The great castles (kal'ah) mentioned in its history seem to have disappeared. " (Le Strange: 1966..pg 418).

HITTITES..."The early Hittite treaty from Boghazkoy proves that the first Indo-Europeans adopted Mithras into their religious system. Tablets found in the Anatolian plateau dating from 1400 BC."..(Vermaseren: 1963..pg 13)...

HOR..."Hor gling denoted the region north of eastern Tibet in what is now Xinjiang Uighur."..."Hor and Phrom, (Turks and Tartars) north of Tibet. The land of Phrom Gesar of the North." (Stein: 1972..pg 41)..."Hor: where live the Uighurs. Near the Tarim River."...."Hor and Phrom, Turks and Tartars".(Stein: 1972..pg 41)...(80E) ...(See: Hermann: Historical Atlas of China)

HOS..."the country which is currently called Khuzistan. The Elamite city of Susa (Shushan)"..(32N-48E)..(Kuznetsov: 1970..pg 566)...."Hos-mo: the country of Hos or Susa. Originally the capital of the ancient state of Elam, and later one of the main cities of the Achaemenid empire."(Kuznetsov: 1970..pg 573)...'from Hos, from the six provinces of Hos-mo" (Francke: 1950..pg 163)

HURRIANS...Invented the chariot in Syria about 1600 BC...

HYPERBOREANS..."Aristers of Proconneusu (7th Century BC) journeys into the Scythian territory looking for the mythical race of Hyperboreans. Peaceful, happy, vegetarian, northern Mythical land." (Piggott: 1985...pg 93)...

INCANS...."Called their kingdom 'Four Regions' and their capital at Cuzco (11,000') was divided into 4 quarters. Their supreme ruler was Intip Cori, meaning Son of the Sun. (1200 AD)...Great temple at Pachacamac, near Lima. Sun God's holy fire." (Hawkes: 1962..pg 127)...

INDO-EUROPEANS....Aryans. The first Indo-European speakers entered central Europe about 2300 BC. (National Geographic: May 1977, pg 558)....'The appearance of the Indo-Aryans in India around 1500 BC, the waves of invasion into Greece around 1600-1000 BC, and into Anatolia around 2000 BC"..(Lincoln: 1981..pg 181)...'Identifying the Kurgan culture of southern Russia with that of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Weaponry was highly developed: swords, spears, and arrows, which testifies to a distinctive warrior ideology." (Gimbutas: 1976..pg 289)...The Kurgans were on the steppes of southern Russia in 4000 BC....."Indo-Europeans of the Pazyryk culture"...(Kharatidi: 1996..pg 169)...."Cold forced them to leave Aryan em Vaejo. They moved to Sughda (Soghdiana) and Muru (Margiana). Hostile forces made them go to Balkdhi (Balkh), 'the country of lofty banners'. From Balkh they proceeded to Misaya (Nisa, Nasa). Their migration settled Arachosia, Helmund, Panjab to the east and Tus, Gurgan, Rei, and Gilan to the West." (Sykes: 1958..pg 97)...'The Indo-Europeans with their devotion to celestial deities, continued to encounter peoples whose religious beliefs looked downward to the chthonic powers of the earth." (Hawkes: 1962..pg 167)...'The domestication of the horse between 4500-4000 BC appears with the Indo-European wave from the south Russian Volga steppe.' (Gimbutas: 1989 pg 334)...

INDO-IRANIANS...."Until the year 1400 BC, the Iranians and Hindus were still united and had several gods with similar names. One of these was Mithra." (Canney: pg 244)

JAMBUDVIPA...."Lampaka, the ultima Thule of Jambudvipa, on the bank of the Kabul River a little above Jalalabad; valleys of the Lower Alingar and Alisang." (Acta Iranica: Leiden: 1977...plate 1)

JAPAN...SHOTOKU...In 604 AD the Japanese Crown Prince Shotoku issued the 17 Article Constitution, combining Confucian ethics with the Chinese political theory of a centralized imperial government.

KALMYK..."Both Buddhists and Bonpos had large monasteries in Tibet that drew from as far west as the Kalmyk region between the Caspian and Black Seas." (Lopez: 1997...pg 21)...

KASHMIR..."King Kalasa (1063-1089) of Kashmir awaited his death before an image of the Sun God (Martanda)." (Acta: 1978..pg 250)...

KASSITES....A mountain people from the Iranian north, who had acquired Indo-European rulers. 1600 BC. (Hawkes: 1976..pg 117)

KAWIS...."Glory" (Median: farnah) (Khotanese:pharra)..."In the Avesta, the xwarenah is called 'kawyan', that is belonging to the Kawis. The Kawis were a partially legendary dynasty of eastern Iranian rulers. Xwarenah can be a creative power used by the gods or it can be a religious power. But generally it embodies the concept of good fortune. As a kind of fiery radiance it would relate to the word for sun (xwar) (Old Iranian: Suvar) (hwar: to shine)(xwar: to grasp)." (Malandra: 1983...pg 88)

KHAZARS...Indo-Turkic empire in the 500's, capital at Itil on the Volga....

KHOTAN...(Li Yul)...near the Tarim River..."Khotan (kamsadesa, Li Yul) an ancient city-state in Central Asia, beyond the Karakorum Range. The city has been buried for centuries near the village known as Yotkan."...(Kongtrul: 1995..pg 153)..."The Khotanese Sakas, whose conversion to Buddhism was so complete that almost nothing remained of their original Iranian religion. The same is true of the Tokarians. The Sogdians kept many elements. Central Asian Iranian traditions: Khotanese Sakas, Sogdians, Bactrains, Khwarizmians." (Litvinsky: 1992..pg 431)...Khotanese: the Middle Iranian, Scythian (Saka) language of Khotan in Central Asia.

KHYUNGPO CLAN..."Jamgon Kongtrul provides a lengthy account of the divine origin of the ancestors of the Khyungpo clan, whose descendents include some of the most outstanding figures of both the Buddhist and Bonpo traditions." (Kongtrul: 1995..pg 15)...

KUMANS...Turkic cousins to the Patzinaks. Steppes of Kazakhstan from 1150 AD-1220 AD. Held back the advancing Mongols for two generations then fled to Hungary. Their language died out in 1775...Most of the Russian Tatars were Kuman-Mongol mix...

KURGANS...See Scythians

KUSHANS...."The Kushan Empire had tremendous ethnic and cultural heterogeneity. Buddhism, Jainism, Shivaism, Zorastrianism, Manichaeism and many local tribal cults were practiced." (Gafurov: 1968)..."Mithra was especially venerated by the Kushans...."Kashgar, Khotan, Karashahr, and Kucha (the four garrisons) were defeated by the Arabs in 751 and the whole of inner Asia was lost."..(Knobloch: 1972..pg 224)..."The period of the invasion of the Sakas and Kushans into India in the 2nd century BC." (Acta: 1978..pg 239)..."Mithra was especially venerated by the Kushans in the east." (Acta 17: 1978..pg 209)..."In Kushaniya stood a temple on whose walls were depicted the ancient kings of various nations." (Litvinsky: 1992..pg 429)...King Kaniska is associated with the Tarim River basin in the 2-3rd centuries AD..."Kusha was mostly influenced by Persia."..(Knobloch: 1972..pg 224)..."More than 2000 years ago Central Asia, North India, West Pakistan, and East Iran were united in a single state formation."(Gafurov:1968)...Kushan Kings: Chandragupta (401 AD?)...Samudragupta (350 AD)...(Gafurov: 1968..pg 153)...

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After the fall of the Uigur Kaganate, some Manichaean Uigurs emigrated to the west banks of the Yellow River in Kansu, a second group emigrated via Yetti Su to the southern part of Khan Tengri (Tian Shan in Chinese) in Eastern Turkestan, the third and the largest group of Uigurs emigrated to the northern part of Khan Tengri where their ancestors were still living. The Manichaean Uigurs who emigrated to the west banks of the Yellow river in Kansu established a kingdom in 850 known as the Kan-Chou Uigur Kingdom, later absorbed in 1228 by the Tankut state Western Hsia. These Uigurs still live in the Kansu area under the name Sarik Uigurs or Yellow Uigurs, preserving their old Uigur tongue. The Manichaean Uigurs who emigrated to the northern part of Khan Tengri in Eastern Turkestan established the second Uigur Kingdom in 846 known as Karakhoja Uigur Kingdom near the present day city of Turfan. The Manichaean Uigurs who settled in the southern part of Khan Tengri, established the Karakhanid Kingdom in 840 AD with the support of other T├╝rks, the Karluks, Turgishes and Basmils, with Kashgar as their capital. In 934, during the rule of Satuk Bughra Khan, the Karakhanids embraced Islam. Thus, in the territory of Eastern Turkestan were two Uigur kingdoms: the Moslem Karakhanids, and Buddhist Karakhoja Uigurs.

"Just to the west of Zhang-zhung there once existed the vast Kushana empire ....... an area in which Indian Buddhism and the Bon teachings interacted with various strands of the great Iranian and Central Asian religions-- Zoroastrian, Zurvanist, Mithraist, Manichean, as well as Indian Shaivism and Nestorian Christianity.......

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