447 BC....Parthenon built as a temple for the goddess Athene
390 BC....Rome sacked by the Celts
385 BC...Iranian King of Lycia, Mithrapata (protected by Mithra). Earliest image of Mithra on coinage?
356-323 BC....ALEXANDER THE GREAT....."Alexander of Macedonia shattered the power of the numerous petty kingdoms and tribal oligarchies of the Punjab in North-west India and created a political vacuum that was exploited by Chandragupta Maurya, who actually met Alexander in 327 BC. Chandragupta's grandson, Ashoka, a
350 BC...Greek Historian Timaeus makes earliest known reference to Druids in France.
350 BC....Greek Historian Herdodtus
335 BC.... In 335 B.C. Alexander asked the Celtic envoys what they feared most..."That the sky might fall on their heads" came the reply.....Celts emerged as a distinct people in the 8th Century BC.. ....reached apex in 300 BC..
331 BC (until 238 BC)...Seleucid Rule (Greek Generals) in Persia
331 BC...Alexander defeated Darius III, the last Achaemenid King
328 BC..... Alexander fought against the Massagetae, a people of the nomadic Saka confederacy in 328 BC on the site of the modern Leninabad (Khojent) on the Jaxartes. This became Alexandria Eschate, (40 N, 80 E), his farthest excursion into Central Asia. (Encyclopedia Britanica)..."At Nysa on the Caspian sea, Alexander saw the most sought after horses in Asia, the Nysaean steeds." (Newark: 1989..pg 27)...
312 BC...Selecuid Era
330 BC...."Alexander met with Thalestris, Queen of the Amazons in Parthia in 330 BC (Near the Caspian Sea). She arrived with 300 women warriors in full armour, equipped as horse warriors. She told him she wanted a child by him. He spent 13 days with her.She died soon afterwards and with her disappeared the name of the Amazons." (Newark: Women Warriors..1989)
307 AD... "Mithra appears on horseback in Persian costume on coins. Nero reqests an initiation into the mysteries of Mithra. Diocletian recognizes Mithra as the protector of his empire in 307 AD and Mithraism seems ready to turn all of Europe Mithraic. Mithraism brought the idea of hvarena or Kingly Glory with it from Iran. The Semites called it Gada. The Greeks called it Tyche." (Dhalla: 1963...pg 302)
287-247 BC...Ptolemy II of Egypt
279 BC...Breakup of Celtic power begins
273-232 BC...Emperor Ashoka (Grandson of Chandragupta) Mauryan Empire. Propagation of Buddhism begins with Emperor Ashoka. Buddhism until then was a minor movement in the Bihar region of India.
250- 139 BC...Bactria becomes independent...
238 BC (until 225 AD)...Parthian Rule in Persia under Mithradates I....
206 BC..."Euthidemos in his struggle with Antiochos the Great of Syria threatened to incite the central Asian nomads. Antiochus agreed to peace." (Barthold: 1984..pg 17)
206 BC- 222 AD....Han Dynasty in China
200 BC....."The Saka tribes who settled in the western Pamir in the 2nd Century BC were obviously not able to continue their nomadic ways."..(Gafurov: 1968..pg 137)....
200 BC....Kabalah....(200 B.C - 400 A.D) Kabala is a capital of Caucasian Albania...(400-600 A.D.) Barda becomes capital of Caucasian Albania in VI century A.D.
200 BC....The great sun temple to Jupiter-Baal as the Sun, at Baaleck (Heliopolis), built during the 2nd century AD..
200 BC....."The ancient Persian Sun- worship and the period of the Sakas beginning in the middle of the 2nd Century BC." (Humbach: 1978..pg 241)...."Shaapur, King of the Sakyas"...
200 BC-400 AD...City of Kabala is a capital of Caucasus Albania
ca. 185-100: The Laws of Manu
176 BC..........Seven generations of kings after Suchandra, in 176 B.C.E., King Manjushri Yashas gathered the religious leaders of Shambhala, specifically the brahman wise men, to give them predictions and a warning. Eight hundred years in the future, namely in 624 C.E., a non-Indic religion will arise in Mecca. Because of a lack of unity among the brahmans?people and laxity in following correctly the injunctions of their Vedic scriptures, many will accept this religion when its leaders threaten an invasion. To prevent this danger, Manjushri Yashas united the people of Shambhala into a single "vajra-caste" by conferring upon them the Kalachakra empowerment. By his act, the king became the First Kalki ?the First Holder of the Caste.
175 BC...Graeco-Bactrian state collapsed with the onslaught of Central Asian nomads.
170 BC...Mithradates I...Persian King
165 BC....SAKA... A Scythian tribe originated near Lake Balkash but were forced to move south in 165 BC. Occupied the Swat Valley and Gandhara after conquering the Indo-Greeks. The earliest Saka King was Maues, (Mauakes Moga) 95-75 BC. Mathura (in modern Uttar Pradesh) was an early headquarters. Their coins not only included the Indian goddess Lakshmi, but also the Greek Palla Athene and Herakles. Malwa, with their capital city of Ujjain in the Western Kshatrapas, from which they ruled Rajputana and
154 BC...."On the map of Shambhala, Saka is shown exactly where it is supposed to be, north of Bactria, near Lake Balkash (45N-75E). Between 154 and 114 BC the Saka broke the Parthian defense lines and seized a region in eastern Iran known as Sakastan (Seistan)." (Kuznetsov: 1970..pg 568)..
150 BC...King Trigum Tsenpo in Tibet
130 BC...Graeco-Bactrian Buddist King Menander ruled from Swat to the Punjab.
129 BC... "Scythian (Yueh-chih plus Sakas) Era when the Saka rule moved across the Oxus into Bactria, dispossessing the Greeks." (Thomas: 1952..pg 110)...
127 BC...First of the nine Kings of Tibet (Nyatri Tsenpo)
100 BC.....Mithras entered the Roman world in the 1st century BC.
100 AD...Mithraic Mystery religions began to appear in the Roman empire
100 BC.....Mithras entered the Roman world in the 1st century BC.
100 AD...Mithraic Mystery religions began to appear in the Roman empire
2nd Century AD...official recognition of Mithraism (the Freemasonry of ancient Rome) came in the later 2nd C AD (Godwin: 1981..pg 98)
200 AD....."After the reign of Alexander the Great, Mithra came to be worshipped in all the Oriental Kingdoms. By the 2nd Century AD it had spread throughout the Greek and Roman empires. (Canney: pg 244)...
216-276 AD...Mani, founder of Manichaenism
225 AD (until 642 AD)...Sasanian Rule in Persia. First King was Ardashir I...
256 A.D. (5006) The last known Ashur worshippers. Assyrians are now all Christians.
216 A.D. Mar Mani was born in 216 A.D. in Mardinu, a little village in southern Iraq, along the Euphrates river. The date of Mani's birth was probably on the eighth day of the lunar month of Nisan, corresponding to April 14.
228 AD The angel At-Taum appears unto Mani in a vegetarian Elchasite monastery.
240 Mani separated from the Elkasite community in his 24th year, at the end of King Ardashir's reign. In early April of 240, or 241 AD, the angel At-Taum again appeared unto Mani and commanded him, saying: "Now the time has come for you to go out and proclaim your authority. Peace be on you, Mani, from myself and from the Lord who sent me to you and who has chosen you for His Message. He has now bidden you to invite to your truth, and to proclaim the good news of the Truth from before Him,a dn to persevere in that with all your zeal."
242 On the second Sunday after Easter, 20 March, A.D. (or perhaps April 9, 243) Mani first proclaimed his gospel in the city of the King, Gundesapor, on the coronation day of Sapor I, when vast crowds from all parts were gathered together.
240 or 241 A.D. Mar Mani sailed to India, specifically to the Indus valley which is today's Beluchistan, where he converted a Buddhist King, the Turan Shah of India.
245 Mani traveled to Shapur's court. It is said that the King saw two torches of light over Mani's shoulders at their first meeting which influenced him to accept the prophetic calling of Mani. There Mani requested and was able to obtain certain royal letters to all the Persian governors telling them not to hinder his mission and to allow him free roam within the kingdom.
255 Zarathustrian magi led by Kartir persuaded Shapur to break with Mani and promote their religion in the empire, causing Mani to go into exile. In the next eighteen years the prophet returned to Khorasan and traveled in central Asia as far as western China, returning by way of Tibet and Kashmir.
272 Zazai immigrated from Media into the Euphrates Valley of Iraq and Iran about 272A.D. Zazai represent one of two branches of the ancient Nazorean followers of John the Baptist and Yeshu.
276 Mani was arrested at Gundev Shapur in 276A.D., was kept in chains until he died 26 days later.
276 Mani died in prison on February 26 in 277A.D. His death was told by two of his disciples - Amu and Ozei, in Mir.
291 Terrible persecution arose once again in the Persian empire in 291. Vahram II killed Sisin himself, and many Manichaeans were slaughtered.
291-303 Innai reigned as Imam from 291 to 303. He was known as a great healer. Soon after the murder of Sisin, the King took seriously ill and resorted to Innai's medical expertise to heal him. After his recovery he issued proclamations of tolerance for the Manichaeans and the faith again began to spread easily.
296 The fifth year of Innai's Imamship, Diocletian extended the Christian persecution to the Manichaeans, resulting in numerous martyrs in Egypt and North Africa. During the Persian king Narsi rule, which extended from this same time of 296 to 303, the Manichaeans were left in peace in Persia. This peaceful period resulted in at least two commentaries being written, one on the Mysteries, and the other on the Treasure of Life.
A.D. 300-1400 Mogollon culture introduces highly artistic pottery and early architecture in the form of pit houses.
3rd Century AD...."Expulsion of the Tokarians (Saka) from India. Their rulers returned to Balkh, where they came under the influence of the Sasanid dynasty, which was newly established." (Barthold: 1984..pg 19)...
In the 3rd century B.C.E. emerged the Pudgalavadins from the Hinayana school of Buddhism, who derive their name from the word pudgala, meaning 'person'. The Pudgalavadins claimed that for reincarnation to take place, there had to be a continuous person who was reincarnated again and again, thus requiring a kind of individual soul, not an autonomous self, but a soul in constant transformation. This view was criticised by other Buddhist sects who said that Pudgalavadin teaching implied the reality of a self and, therefore, contradicted the basic Buddhist teaching of anatman (no self). These Pudgalavadins were persecuted in India but flourished in Central Asian Bon areas where they, with the possible influence of Mani and Manichaeanism, seem to have developed into, or merged with, the Dzogchen teachings of the Great Perfection in Tibet. An early form of this Dzogchen then possibly evolved into Ch'an and Zen and spread eastward.
3rd Century AD...King Shapur expressed a serious interest in the learning of the Greeks and Indians, especially in the areas of space and time...
312 AD...."Constantines vision at the battle of the Milvan Bridge in 312 AD led to his proclamation of Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire" (Vermaseren: 1963..pg 191)
Manichaeanism entered into Tibet and northern India at the end of the third century A.D. By 670-692 existed in strength in eastern Turkestan where the Uighur Turks were intermixing with Iranians and Scyths. Manichaeanism, along with Buddhism, became extremely prevalent in this area. Manichaeanism tended to express itself in Buddhist terminology in this land and itself was part Buddhist, yet Manichaeanism has many elements considered inharmonious with traditional Buddhist ideas. This Buddhist Manichaeanism mix, of which Mani would have been proud, possibly had a profound influence on Mahayana Buddhism which would soon become the dominant form of Buddhism. Manichaean elements are especially discernible in Buddhist schools such as the pure land sect and continued to influence the unique development of Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet. Thus these forms of Buddhism speak of a central deity, a light land, 5 elements in need of redemption, and other traditional Manichaean teachings.
366 Mogao caves started in Dunhuang. A Tang Dynasty inscription records that the first cave in the Mogao Grottoes was made in 366 A.D. Despite erosion and man-made destruction, the 492 caves are well preserved, with frescoes covering an area of 45,000 square metres, more than 2,000 colored sculptured figures and five wooden eaves overhanging the caves.
399 By the end of the century the Treasure was being taught in Spain, Portugal and Galacia by Mark of Memphis despite the persecutions of Christian Bishops like Evodius of Uzzala, and the Manichaean movement was continuing to spread veganism and the worship of the Hidden Living Ones throughout the western and eastern empires. During the last century Buddhist cave temples, the world's largest, are carved into the mountainsides in Dunhuang, China. The secret of silk-making leaks out along the Silk Road's westward route. Bamiyan, 240 kilometers northwest of Kabul, Afghanistan, had become one of the greatest Buddhist monastic communities in all Central Asia by the 4th century. .
361-363 AD...Julian the Apostate, who was initiated into the mysteries of Mithra in his youth, and considered himself under the protection of Mithra, was the last Pagan to occupy the throne of the Caesars, the last who was an ardent worshipper of Mithra.Mithraism lingered for a considerable time in the Alps and Vosges.
392 AD...With the Christian Edict of 392 AD all 'pagan religions in the Roman empire, especially Mithraism, were severely suppressed." (Vermaseren: 1963..pg 191)...
400AD....Kabalah....(200 B.C - 400 A.D) Kabala is a capital of Caucasian Albania...(400-600 A.D.) Barda becomes capital of Caucasian Albania in VI century A.D.
400 A.D. (5150) The great translation movement. Assyrian monks, because of their close ties with Greek Christianity, translate the significant body of Greek knowledge into Assyrian, including all the great works of religion, medicine, philosophy, science, and mathematics. These works are eventually translated into Arabic and brought to Spain by the Moors, where they are translated from Arabic to Latin and distributed through Europe, igniting the Renaissance.
A.D. 1-700 Anasazi basketmakers elevate weaving to a high art, creating baskets, clothing, sandals and utensils.
401 AD...King Chandragupta of the Kushan Kingdom
4th Century AD...the existence of Buddhist tantras in India, when the amalgamation of the Hindu Tantras with Buddhist thought began to emerge....(June Campbell pg 47)
"According to Kuznetsov, Bon was introduced to Tibet in the fifth century BC, when there occurred a mass migration of Iranians from Sogdhiana in north-east Iran to the northern parts of Tibet.."
446 Persecution of Buddhism by Toba Turkic king
448 Decree by Theodosius to exile the Manichaeans and a harsh persecution in Persian lands by Yesdijerd II. During the reign of Feroz a certain Battai, known as a Kantean Gnostic, became a Manichaean and edited the scriptures and established a new sect in the Church.
450-494 Yunkang cave temples begun.
450-750 Buddhist caves started in Kizil, Xinjiang
495 Pope Gelasius repeated Pope Leo's cruel torture against the Religion of Light in Rome. This was offset somewhat by great Manichaean growth and success in the courts and lands of Constantinople to the east. Thus the faith of Mani continued to spread despite bitter persecution.
494-524 Mazdak created an unusual expression of our Order that lasted about 30 years. Under the pretext of arranging a debate, they gathered Mazdak and his followers in the royal garden and buried them there alive. The King then had 80,000 Mazdakians and orthodox Manichaeans killedl. Mazdak's teachings survived his death and later inspired movements like Abu-Muslim Khorasani, Babak Khoramdin, and Sarbedaran in later years.
6th century AD...Hephthalites destroyed by Sasanids in alliance with the Turkish Khans south of Balkh. (Barhtold: 1984)...
525 AD...Anno Domini first allotted to
530 AD...."At the second council of Constantinople, reincarnation, which had been previously accepted in Christianity, was officially ruled out. It was a narrow vote." (Clark: 1954..pg 325)...
"... the narrowness of growth rings in bog oaks and archaeological timbers ...[ shows very clearly ]... that a great catastrophe struck the Earth in AD 540. ... Not only in Northern Ireland and Britain, but right across northern Siberia, North and South America - it is a global event of some kind. ...", according to an 8 September 2000 BBC article by Johnathan Amos, citing Mike Baillie, professor of palaeoecology at Queen's University in Belfast. The article also says "... cometary fragments smashed into the atmosphere throwing up dust and gas that blocked out the Sun. This, in turn, led to crop failures, famine and even plague among the weakened peoples of the world. ... some archaeologists and historians are beginning to come round to the opinion that this was the date when the Dark Ages began in Northern Europe. It wasn't just when the Romans left. ...".
552-745 AD....the Turk Kaghanate established in Mongolia
550-630 AD....Western Turkish Empire, ruled by the Celestial Blue Turks (Kok Turks). Broken up as a result of civil wars in the mid 7th century.
563-567 Turks took over Soghdiana between 563 and 567, and showed tolerance for the many followers of Mani who lived in that land.
573-621 AD...Prince Shotoku of Japan
580 AD...."In 580 AD the Turks assailed Sassanian Persia from the East and weakened it which led to the triumph of Islam a few decades later. The surprise and defeat of the Sassanian Shahr-Baraz in 624 AD." (Langer: Ency World History:1940)....
586 AD..the Kingdom of Nu Kuo was known at the Tibetan Court. This 'Kingdom of Women' was int the Tsung-ling Mountains in northern Tibet. Queen lived in a nine-storied house." (June Campbell pg 49)
590 Turks conquered Tokharistan, Balkh, Heart and other provinces, opening the door for them to become Manichaean. Syrian Nestorians brought into Armenia copies of an "Explanation of Mani's Gospel" at this time period.
7th C AD...Sassanian Kings in Media....Numerous Kal'ah (Castles)
7th Century AD...first Manichaean kingship in Uighur...
In 726, during the Umayyad period, the Nestorian theologian John of Damascus wrote that Muhammad was a forerunner of the Antichrist. The Nestorian position - and consequently the Muslim response - changed, however, during the Abbasid period when Buddhists would have had contact with both religions. In the early 780s, Caliph al-Mahdi invited the Nestorian Patriarch Timothy I to Baghdad to discuss the doctrinal differences between Christianity and Islam. The dialogue was polite and friendly, with both sides praising both Jesus and Muhammad.... Just as the Buddhist scholars working in Baghdad at the time witnessed the anti-Manichaean Shiah sentiment of the Abbasads, they likewise witnessed the Abbasad's friendly attitude toward Nestorian Christianity. Whether or not they adopted these attitudes is difficult to say. However, the fact that Nestorianism lacks any mention of Muhammad or Mahdi as prophets further disqualifies the Christians from being the non-Indic invaders warned against in the Kalachakra teachings.
"622 AD is the first year of the new Mohammedian era according to the Islamic tradition...Year of Hegira (flight from Mecca)... ....."In 624 AD, a Moslem invasion weakened the Kingdom of Shambhala."(Roerich: 1974..pg 753) (Geoffrey Hopkins: 1985..pg 60)... In 624 AD the Sassian Shah Yazdigird is defeated by the Arabs at the battle of Nahavand...In Iran, the great Sassanian dynasty collapsed in the 7th century under the Arab onslaught...."in the era of the Mlecchas, the starting year of the Kalacakra chronology is the first year of the Hijra, calculated from the year 624 AD."..(Roerich:1949...pg 753)....624 AD...'the Emperor Heraclkes captures the Persian residence of Ganzaca (Ganjak) with its cosmic throne room." (Sacral Kingship: 1959..pg 484)......632 AD....Muhammad died in 632 AD, beginning an expansion of the Muslim Empire in central Asia...11th year of Hegira (Flight from Mecca)... He died in the evening of the twelfth of Rabi’ al-Awwal (June 8, 632 A.D.) at the age of sixty-three.......629 A.D.... Army of Kok-Turk Empire and Khazars enter Azerbaijan (Albania), defeating Persians. Azerbaijan is declared to be "eternal possesion" of Turks. The capital of Albania - Kabala renamed into Khazar. Albanian nobility and clergyman escape from Barda to the Albanian stronghold - Mountaineous Karabagh. [Source: "History of Albans" by Moisey Kalankatly] The next year both withdraw from Azerbaijan due to internal strife within Empire.