KALA ATASH..."castle of fire worshippers" (Marco Polo in Waugh: 1984..pg 29)...
KALAH......One of the most magnificent capitals of antiquity. ....(also Nimrud)...ancient Assyrian City near Nimeveh, built around 1300 BC. by Shalmaneser I...abandoned, then rebuilt as a royal residential city about 880 BC...excavations revealed much monumental material....Nineveh was the splendid capital of the Assyrian Empire. Conquering Medes and Chaldeans swept over the city in 606 BC and made it a desolate waste.. The great palaces of Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal...thousands of tablets of their libraries have been deciphered. ...The mounds extend for 15 miles along the Tigris, opposite the modern city of Mosul, represent the also the cities of Dur-Sargon and Kalah. Ninevah existed as early as 2000 BC and was chiefly the creation of Sennacherbi (705-681 BC) who walled and fortified it for two and 1/2 miles along the Tigris, building a great new palace and laying out extensive gardens.......(Comptons 1934 Edition).
KABALAH....(48E..42N)..."In the mountains near Darband was the fortress of Kabalah, on a hill. North of the port of Baku. The Arabs called Darband (Bab-al-Abwab)." (le Strange:1966..pg 181)...A second TARUM RIVER in ancient Persia...near the Caspian Sea. A ring of mountains surrounding the small kingdoms of ancient Persia. North of Hagmatan. Location of a great castle called Kal'ah Taj. Had 'lions of gold' on its walls. Tributary of the Safid River in the Elburz Mountains. North of the ancient city of Ray. South of the ancient city of Kabalah. (LeStrange: 1966..pg 227))...On the Caspian Sea where the Caucasus Mountains meet the sea, in the Shirvan province is the capital Ash-Shamakha, near the famous port of Darband. In the mountains near Darband was the ancient fortress of Kabalah, on a hill, near the current Soviet border. north of the port of Baku. Location of a great castle called Kal'ah Taj. The remains of a mighty castle (kal'ah), a 'mother of castles' situated on the great Tarum River that flowed from the mountains of Tarum in northern Persia. Like Samiran, its site remains unidentified. On its walls were lions of gold. The ancient fortress of Kabalah near Darband is more than once mentioned in the campaigns of Timur.
Le Strange, G...."The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate"...1966
200 B.C - 400 A.D Kabala is a capital of Caucasian Albania
400-600 A.D. Barda becomes capital of Caucasian Albania in VI century A.D.
629 A.D. Army of Kok-Turk Empire and Khazars enter Azerbaijan (Albania), defeating Persians. Azerbaijan is declared to be "eternal possesion" of Turks. The capital of Albania - Kabala renamed into Khazar. Albanian nobility and clergyman escape from Barda to the Albanian stronghold - Mountaineous Karabagh. [Source: "History of Albans" by Moisey Kalankatly] The next year both withdraw from Azerbaijan due to internal strife within Empire.
1221-1227 Georgian feudals occupy Sheki and Kabala, but later those cities are liberated and again become part of Shirvan
1755 Sheki khan Haji Chelebi conquers Kabala and Sheki sultanates, but defeated in wars with other khanates.
10 And the start of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.
11 From that land he went to Assyria and built Nineveh. Rehoboth-Ir, Calah,
12 and Resen between Ninevah and Calah, a great city.
After the flood a vast kingdom was established in Babylon in the land of Shinar. This kingdom spread to incorporate all the territory of the four rivers including the Euphrates. The territory also included the lands which would represent another kingdom at a later time, the kingdom of Assyria. This is what the Bible says: Gen 10:8 "Cush was the father of Nimrod, who grew to be a mighty warrior on the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; that is why it is said, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the LORD." The first centres of his kingdom were BABYLON, Erech, Akkad and Calneh, in SHINAR. From that land he went to ASSYRIA, where he built Ninevah, Rehoboth Ir, Calah and Resen, which is between Ninevah and Calah; that is the great city." Here we find a description of the LAND OF BABYLON and its boundaries which extends from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. This is the territory that is referred to many times in the Bible. At the time of Daniel, the independent nation of Assyria no longer existed. It had already been engulfed by Nebuchednezzar. This is the starting point for all of Daniel's
Q: In Jon 3:3 and Jon 4:11, how was Ninevah such a great city, with 200,000 people?
A: According to the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.1208, the city of Calah was less than half as large as Ninevah, and in 879 B.C. it had 69,574 inhabitants. (This is based on an inscription by Asurnasirpal II (883-859 B.C., where he invited 69,574 people of Nimrod to a feast according to The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.1472.)
As Geisler and Howe say in When Critics Ask p.308, three days does not refer to a straight walk through open territory, but the time to go in and around through the city. A city 16 miles (26 kilometers) in diameter would be about 50 miles (80 kilometers) in circumference, and could be about 600,000 people.
Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian Empire, one of the great enemies of the Nation of Israel in the Bible. The ancient site of Nineveh is part of Mosul, the second largest city in modern Iraq. Nineveh lies on the east bank of the Tigris a few kilometers downhill from the beginning of the Kurdish mountains. The modern city of Mosul, however, crosses both banks of the Tigris. The region around Nineveh was and has remained a rich agricultrual region. Additionally, Nineveh has a very good location for trade. It is positioned along both North-South and East-West trade routes. These factors made Nineveh an ideal area to settle and made explain why it had such an emminent position in a great empire. At its height the city had a circumfrence of approximately 12.5 km (7.75 miles). The local people never forgot the location of Nineveh, but Europeans were unaware of the location of the city until the mid-1800's. Sir Austin Henry Layard, one of the pioneer Assyrian archaeologists initially mistook a city known as Nimroud (Nimrud), ancient Calah for Nineveh. Unlike at other sites in the Middle East and in Iraq in particular, excavations at Nineveh have tended to be sporadic.
Within Nineveh there are two citadels or tells called Kuyunjik and Nebi Yunus (Prophet Jonah). Of these only Kuyunjik has been extensively explored. The other mound, Nebi Yunus has not been extensively explored, because there is a Muslim shrine dedicated to the prophet Jonah (Nebi Yunus in Arabic) on the site. A whale bone hangs inside the mosque/shrine on Nebi Yunus, recalling the story of Jonah and the whale (Jonah 1:17-2:10)*. A major site of particular importance to those interested in the archaeology of the Bible is the palace of Sennacherib in Nineveh. Unfortunately this palace probably vandalized in the 1990's. Assyrian reliefs from the palace, which had survived for centuries, were apparently broken, and fragments have appeared on the market (Russell).
Sir Austin Henry Layard explored the ruins of Nineveh in 1847 and discovered the lost palace of Sennacherib. Writen in the doorway of the throne room, Layard found Sennacherib's own account of a seige of Jerusalem. This created a great deal of public interest, because previously the only account of any seige of Jerusalem by Sennacherib was the one found in the Bible (2 Kings 18-19) Sennacherib's account does differ from the Bible's, but both affirm that Sennacherib did not capture the city. Many people felt this vindicated their faith in the Bible, which had been attacked by "increasing religious doubt and scriptural revisionism." The palaces walls were covered with stone slabs chronicling Sennacherib's victories. One of these stone slabs chronicles in what appears to be remarkable detail the Judean city of Lachish, whose destruction the Bible records (2 Kings 18:13-14) (Russell).
The scholars have been arguing ever since Layard's early discoveries over how the to handle the descrepencies between the Assyrian and Biblical narratives of the invasion of the kingdom of Judah. Some scholars would simply favor one set of narratives over the other, believing one source to be inherrantly more reliable than other. Other scholar would tend to ignore the descrepencies between the two or attempt to explain them away, but still others think that the differences are so great that they seem to chronicle different events. In his article on Sennacherib in The Anchor Bible Dictionary, A. Kirk Grayson offers an interesting "Historical Reconstruction," based upon the principle that they do indeed record different events. He hypothesize:
The first [invasion of the kingdom of Judah] was the campaign of 701 B.C. and the second probably took place late in the reign [of Sennacherib] (688-681 B.C.), a period for which no Assyrian annals are preserved. Sennacherib's first Palestinian campaign could have taken place more or less as he described it in his annals. The seige of Jerusalem came to an end when Hezekiah paid a huge tribute to Sennacherib (see 2 Kgs 18:14-16). In subsequent years, Hezekiah, encouraged by the absence of the Assyrian army, must have allied himself to Egypt. At the same time he took the precaution of fortifying Jerusalem to face a siege as narrated in 2 Chronicles. Sennacherib, late in his reign after he had dealt with other problems, was in a position to deal with Hezekiah. Thus, he probably led a second campaign into Palestine which involved among other things the seige of Lachish. It was possibly on this occasion that Rabshakeh made his vain efforts to persuade Hezekiah to give up without a fight. Tirhakah led an Egypto-Ethiopian force into Palestine to raise the seige. Before the two armies met however a catastrophe befell the Assyrian camp and Sennacherib retreated in haste (cf. Herodotus 2.141). This is a hypothetical reconstruction of the events but it accepts the biblical narrative as essentially accurate while at the same time reconciling it with the Assyrian records. (1089)
Even the role which the relief of the razing of Lachish is a subject of dispute among scholars. Some scholars insist that the reliefs of the battle scenes must have been drawn by eyewitness or be based upon eyewitness testimony. These scholars believe that excavations of Lachish (Tell ed Duweir) support their conclusions. They believe that topographical data, the dress of the local residents, and aspects of architecture are accurately depicted on the relief. A paper by a scholar with a different opinion, R. Jacoby, attempts to show that the architectural details of the battle reliefs are not specific to Lachish but are generic for all Neo-Assyrian battle reliefs. In another paper, Paul S. Ash of Emory University takes Jacoby's hypothesis still further by proving that the topographical details and details of dress are generic to the reliefs
In Shambhala the days are theoretically exactly 16 hours at the summer solstice. This gives an exact latitude, between 47-48 degrees north if taken literally.
Thus as for the host of Rigden Drakpo, all these, after all the host of the Lalos has been conquered, Shiva, etc. and their retinues, attaining rigden-hood, on the mountain Kailasha, going to the god-built city Kaalaapa. They abide as wheel havers: with the basis of wheel having they will become such beings Pemachen says they become the 5 eyes of Kaalachakra. So it is explained.