Saturday, September 22, 2012

HISTORICAL TIMETABLE....Up to 500 BC

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13,330,000,000 (billion) years ago, our Known Current Physical Universe formed and Galaxy Inflation began. Big Bang Occurred....Condensed Matter Exploded.....Black Dot Occurred...Time/Space Began

5,000,000,000 (Billion) years ago, the Sun formed.

4,600,000,000 (Billion) years ago, the Earth formed.

4 Billion Years Ago......Primitive Life on Earth Began... The heaviest meteor bombardment of Earth happened about 3.8 billion years ago, around the same time that life on the planet is believed to have started..

635,000,000 (635 Million) Years ago......Animal life began...sedimentary rocks in south Oman, researchers found an anomalously high amount of distinctive steroids that date back to 635 million years ago, to around the end of the last immense ice age. The steroids are produced by sponges – one of the simplest forms of multicellular animals

100,000,000 (100 Million)...most of today's mammalian lineages appeared between 100 and 85 million years ago

64,000,000 (64 Million) extinction of dinosaurs that occurred 64 million years ago........, Mesozoic-Cenozoic Extinction, perhaps due to asteroid impact.The primary impact site may have been in Yucatan, Mexico, with many secondary impacts, including 3 along a great circle: Manson in Iowa, USA; Siberia; and China.

8,000,000 (8 Million).....estimate that the human lineage diverged from that of chimpanzees about five million years ago, and from that of gorillas about eight million years ago. However, a hominid skull discovered in Chad in 2001, classified as Sahelanthropus tchadensis, is approximately seven million years old, which may indicate an earlier divergence

3,000,000 years ago - Steve Stanley, Children of the Ice Age (Harmony Books 1996), describes what happened: The present Ice Age began when the Isthmus of Panama emerged to block the Atlantic-Pacific connection, creating a conveyor belt of cold salty water that sinks near the Arctic 0cean and goes back south, instead of carrying heat to the Arctic Ocean. Australopithecus lived in transitional woodlands near trees, because with no stone weapons and no fire, trees were the only way Australopithecus could avoid the lions. The ice age killed the trees, and with the trees gone, the lions killed Australopithecus. Homo, smart enough to defend itself with fire and stone, could live on the ground. Homo's intelligence required a large brain, which meant difficult childbirth and a long dangerous childhood. Homo's survival required couples to mate for life to care for their few children over a long childhood.

2,000,000 (2 Million).....Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin to leave Africa......H. erectus originally migrated from Africa during the Early Pleistocene, possibly as a result of the operation of the Saharan pump, around 2.0 million years ago, and dispersed throughout most of the Old World. Fossilized remains 1.8 and 1.0 million years old have been found in Africa (e.g., Lake Turkana[1] and Olduvai Gorge), Europe (Georgia, Spain), Indonesia (e.g., Sangiran and Trinil), Vietnam, and China (e.g., Shaanxi).

400,000 BC......Homo sapiens evolved between 400,000 and 250,000 years ago. The dominant view among scientists is the recent African origin of modern humans (RAO) that H. sapiens evolved in Africa and spread across the globe, replacing populations of H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis

144,000 BC......Geneticists believe that an ancestral human population of about 2000 individuals who lived somewhere in Africa began to split up. Studies based on both mitochondrial and Y chromosome trees...

80,000 BC.......the North Pole was located in the Yukon, at 63° N 135° W, approximately 80,000 to100,000 years ago.

41,000 years ago Neanderthals were already moving south in Europe, away from modern man....

... 38, 000 BC....'Panel of Hands' in El Castillo Cave, Spain, showing red disks and hand stencils made by blowing or spitting paint onto the wall. A date from a disk shows the painting to be older than 40,800 years, making it the oldest known cave art in Europe....What makes the dating of the Spanish cave paintings important is that it's around the time when modern humans first came into Europe from Africa.

35,000 BC.....Modern man becoming the dominant human species in Europe

c. 25000 B.C. Sandia people leave earliest evidence of human existence in what is now New Mexico.

24,000 BC..."Black Venus" figurine unearthed near the Czech village of Dolni Vestonice in 1924. Also one at Willendorf. 11 cm tall. Discovered in 1908. Oldest Paleolithic sculptures? Oldest known portrayals of women? 100 small statuettes have been found.

Neanderthals and modern humans coexisted in Europe for several thousand years, but the duration of this period is uncertain. Modern humans may have first migrated to Europe 40–43,000 years ago, and Neanderthals may have lived as recently as 24,000 years ago in refugia on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula such as Gorham's Cave.

If 11,600 years ago marked the beginning of the Rule of Mortal Humans on Earth according to Manetho (Egyptian historian ca. 343 BC), then his immediately preceding period of 11,025 years of Rule by Demigods and Spirits of the Dead (followers of Horus) would have begun about 22,625 years ago, or about the time of the beginning of the last Glacial Maximum

11,000 BC...Ice Age glaciers melted rapidly all over the world. Sea levels rose up to 500 feet. Asian land bridges (Japan, etc) were closed.

10,700 BC...Jomen pottery in Japan. World's oldest?

c. 10,000 - 9,000: B.C. Clovis hunters roam Southwest area in search of mammoth, bison and other game.

c. 10,000 - 500 B.C. Cochise people are first inhabitants to cultivate corn, squash and beans, the earliest evidence of agriculture in the Southwest.

10,000 BC......."Persian recorded history stretches back to roughly 12,000 years ago, starting with Shah Gayomard (or Kayomarz), the 1st king of the Peshdadian Dynasty, to whom Mazda first imparted true religious knowledge. In all, there were 11 Peshdadian monarchs of very high spiritual stature, including Shah Jamshied (Yima), Shah Faridun, etc."

c. 9,000 - 8,000 B.C. Folsom people flourish throughout Southwest at the end of the last Ice Age.

8,000 BC...Ice sheets and glaciers retreated to their present position

8,000 BC.....Damascus has the reputation of being the oldest city in the world though there are no actual records of when Damascus was founded - as records were not kept by its early inhabitants. More recent discoveries suggest that Damascus was first settled ca. 6,000 B.C. but some discoveries suggest that it is older than 8,000 B.C. but we don't know exactly who ruled Damascus at that time. An old story says that its name "Sham" was derived from "Shem" the eldest son of Noah because he chose to live there after the flood..........Sham and Shem also translate as "SUN"...... and seem related to ShamAsh......

8000........a tablet from the early 9th century B.C. which depicts the Babylonian sun-god Shamash seated on the right, holding emblems of his authority, a staff and ring, and the king with two attendants on the left. In the center, on an altar, is a large 4-point sun image, with additional small wavy rays between the points.

7500 BC.....Zorats Karer (Karahunj)........believed to be the world first astrological observatory dating 7 500 BC (Heruni, P. 1998), archeological excavations of burial chambers found in the complex qualify the existence of the stones since then. As with other locations of historical interest found throughout Siunik and along with similar sites such as Stonehenge in England, Kaunak in France, Kalenish in Scotland, and the Irish New Greg, Zorats Karer has many legends associated with it. One tale in particular, says that during a wedding, enemies approached with the intention of kidnapping the bride. After prayers to the Gods, the approaching hordes were turned to stone. Artak Sargsyan, a PhD candidate at the Institute of Eastern Sciences of the Academy of Sciences has been researching the stones for over two years, and believes that Zorats Karer is relevant in any study of Armenia.

7000 BC......The Iranian history dates back to over 9,000 years ago and the country is among the three ancient regions in the world where writing appeared for the first time. Pictorial writings found in the west of Iran date back to over 3200 years before Christ. The first empire was founded in Fars Province by the Iranian Dynasty, the Achamenians over 2500 years ago.

7,000 BC.....Skeletons of Caucasoid humans from this period are discovered in the western United States

6980 BC....Cheddar Man skeleton in Britain. DNA match still found in a teacher in the Cheddar Village school in 1997, proving a 9000 year old genetic continuity.

6500 BC...Catal Huyuk, neolithic site in Turkey (Central Anatolia) flourished...At Catul Huyuk the goddess images were shown with the bull horns emerging from her womb. (June Campbell..pg 41)...

6000 BC....A chart on the greenhouse gas effect in the March 2005 issue of Scientific American. It appears in an article entitled, "How Did Humans First Alter Global Climate?" by William Ruddiman. In it he proposes that mankind began altering the the earth's climate not eighty years ago, but 8,000 years ago with the introduction of agriculture

6000 BC......"Asho Zarathushtra (AZ) .....his era which is approx. 8,300 years ago in ancient Persia"

5000 BC.....The accurate date for the arrival of Aryans in ancient Persia is not known. The Aryans are the ancestors of Iranians and progenitors of Iranian political systems. The odds are that the milestone dates back to 3000 to 5000 B.C. when, to historians and archeologists, locals in eastern, central and northern Iran were still socially too underdeveloped to set up big administration formations. Merely, in western and southern segments, there was the powerful Ilami regime. Historical relics showcase their association with immigrant newcomers. The similarity of Aryan names to Ilami ones proves this theory. Coincident with Egyptians and Mesopotamians, Ilamis, who are of the earliest civilized and urban populations worldwide, introduced the alphabets and led the globe into a historic era. The Ilamis were followed by different governments established by various Persian communities. One of the most ancient governments was that of Medes. Bringing Persian tribes together in contemporary Hamedan (named after the very event), they pioneered running administration in ancient Persia. Later on, the Achaemenids established the first empire of the world. Next epoches witnessed the ruling of a wide variety of Persian descendants, also domination of foreign powers which assumed Persian identity and pretended safeguarding Persian culture, history and language. They ruled over either the entire Iran or a few regions from time to time.............
Proto Literate (3500 B.c)
Proto Elamite (3200-2700 B.C)
Old Elamite (2700-1500 B.C.)
Middle Elamite (1500-900 B.C.)
Neo Elamite (900-646 B.C.)
Mades (708-550 B.C.)
Achaemenid (550-331 B.C.)

6000 BC........."The religious strife became so intense that during or shortly after the mission of AZ, the two camps within the Aryan community split up in a Great Schism, parted company for ever and went their own separate ways. ...... this split occurred when the Aryans were apparently located at around 50 degrees North latitude somewhere in Northern Eurasia. Later, the Asura worshipping Iranian-Aryans migrated further Southwards and finally settled in the Iranian Plateau (Persia), while the Deva worshipping Indo-Aryans took a different route and finally settled in the Indo-Gangetic Plain of North India. The split was complete, even physically/geographically."

5000-2000 BC...Indo-Iranian peoples formed a single group, a branch of the Indo-European family with homeland on the south Russian steppes, east of the Volga." (Boyce: 1984)

5000 BC......The earliest sign of municipal administration (kingship in pre-historic sense) appears during the Halaf Period in Mesopotamia (over 7000 years ago). The most notable characteristics of this period are the "sitting goddess figurines" indicating a goddess-worshipping culture and the distinctive colored potteries with geometric designs pointing to the existence of a high-culture civilization in Mesopotamia. The Sumerian term akiti meant "building life on earth" symbolizing the handing of life from gods to man. The Babylonians adopted this term and called their New Year festival Akitu (modern-day Kha b'Neesan).

5000 B.C. (-250) The earliest known settlement of Nineveh (Near CALAH). In 1932, Sir Max Mallowan, the eminent British archaeologist, dug a deep sounding which reached virgin soil ninety feet below the top of the mound of Nineveh; this gave a pottery sequence back to prehistoric times and showed that the site was already inhabited by 5000 B.C..

4750 B.C. The first temple of Ashur is built. This marks the beginning of the Assyrian calendar.........The Assyrian Calendar begins with the first recorded year of the "beginning of civilization" (shooraya d'mdeetanayoota) as seen through the eyes of the ancient Bet-Nahranaye (Mesopotamians). These ancient inhabitants of Assyria, Babylon, and Sumer believed that civilization was a "gift from the gods" and it was marked from the time "kingship was lowered from heaven."

4750 BC.....In the 1950's Assyrians believed that based on the research findings of their contemporary archaeologists the first construction of the city of Ashur's temple during the Uruk Period took place around 4750 B.C. This date was then recorded as the beginning of "civilization" in Mesopotamia.

4500 BC...Domestication of the Horse appears from Indo-Euaropean wave from the south Russian Volga steppes between 4500-4000 BC. (Gimbutas: 1989)

4300 BC......According to the latest archeological findings in Anatolia, the transformation of localized settlements to the first cities took place between 4300 to 3450 B.C.. Religion was the main focus of socialization during this period and each city possessed a religious complex (i.e. ziggurats). Each city was administered by a "local king" or lugal. Archeologists refer to this period as the Early to Middle Uruk Periods.

4300 BC....Kurgan (Proto-Indo-Europeans) wave #1 (Horse riding warrior culture) put an end to Old European culture between 4300-2800 BC (Gimbutas: 1989)

4263 BCE......The earliest Egyptian calendar was based on the moon's cycles, but later the Egyptians realized that the "Dog Star" in Canis Major, which we call Sirius, rose next to the sun every 365 days, about when the annual inundation of the Nile began. Based on this knowledge, they devised a 365 day calendar that seems to have begun in 4236 BCE (Before the Common Era), which thus seems to be one of the earliest years recorded in history.

4000 BC....The Kurgans were on the steppes of southern Russia

3760 BC......The Assyrian Calendar begins with the first recorded year of the "beginning of civilization" (shooraya d'mdeetanayoota) as seen through the eyes of the ancient Bet-Nahranaye (Mesopotamians). These ancient inhabitants of Assyria, Babylon, and Sumer believed that civilization was a "gift from the gods" and it was marked from the time "kingship was lowered from heaven."

3500 BC...Earliest known examples of writing

3500 BC...Tel Brak. Sun Temple in Eastern Syria. Staring divine eyes...(Gimbutas: 1989: pg 54)

3400 BC....Kurgan (Indo-Europeans) wave #2

3200 BC....Writing in Sumerian tablets

3000 BC...Kurgan (Indo Europeans) wave #3

3000 BC....1st Egyptian dynasty

2600-2500 BC: Indus Valley Harappan Civilization at its height

2600 BC...... Cheops pyramid in Egypt

2500 B.C. (2250) The three great Assyrian cities of Ashur, Arbel and Nineveh are clearly established long before this date, yet no solid archaeological evidence can be cited (because of a lack of research into this area). By 2500 B.C., these cities were thriving metropoli.

2360 BC....Saron I of Akkad established the first great empire known to history

2340 BC...First Imperial Dynasty of Egypt

2300 BC.....INDO-EUROPEANS....Aryans. The first Indo-European speakers entered central Europe about 2300 BC. (National Geographic: May 1977, pg 558)....

2300 BC...Astarte, one of the ancient forms of the universal great goddess, was worshipped by the Iranians in her form as Anahita. Her image was found in Sumeria around 2300 BC. In the Tibetan pantheon she is a manifestation of the sky goddess Kaladugmo (mkhah.la.gdug.mo) or Ma Namkha (ma.nams.mkha) or 'Mother Sky'....

2084 BC..."the signs of the Zodiac were fixed in the year 2084 BC by Babylonian astrologers" (Mackenzie..pg 323)...

2000-1900 BC: Harappan Civilization in Hindus Valley collapses

2000 BC.....SANSKRIT...(Tibetan: legs sbyar gyi skad)....Sanskrit appears about 2000-1500 BC in India with the migration of the Indo-Aryan branch of speakers into northwest India. The nearest relative of Indo-Aryan is Persian. Their earliest literature is the Vedas, sacred hyms to the Aryan deities. The Mahabharata consists of 100,000 couplets. Close affinities with the Iranian Avesta. The Sanskrit dramatists had little regard for the three classical unities of space, time, and action..(Encyclopedia Britannica)....

2000 BC....Indo-Aryans left Proto-Aryan homelands (eastern Iranian steppes of ancient Sogdiana, Chorasmia, and Bactria (Yarshater: 1987..pg 685)...

2000 BC...Indo-Aryans crossed the Caucasus Mountains and established the Kingdom of Mitanni on the NW frontier of the Kassite Kingdom. (James:1963)...

2000 BC....Aryan migration into Anatolia around 2000 BC"..(Lincoln: 1981..pg 181)...

1857 BC...Birth of Shenrab in the 1st Wood Male Mouse Year, the son of King Gyal Tokar and Queen Zanga Ringum (Wangyal: 1993..pg 30)

1800 BC....Beginning of Shang Dynasty in China. Earliest Chinese written records, inscribed on oracle bones and bronze vessels.

1700-1400 BC...Stone Age merging in the Bronze Age on the South Russian steppes

1400 BC...The ruler Kavi Vishtaspa rules over the Avesta people on the steppes

1700 BC......"From cuneiform sources one could surmise that Aryan bands first came into Mesopotamia with the general movement of peoples after the death of Hammurabi in the seventeenth century BC.

1700 BC....Rigveda. Ancient Indian hymns. Composed prior to the Indo-European migration into Persia and India

1700 BC... 17th and 15th centuries BC...Asherah was their mother goddess. The consort of Jehovah. 'She who treads on the sea'..."(Petty: 1990)...

1600 BC...Chariot invented by Hurrians in Syria

1600 BC....Aryans...the waves of invasion into Greece around 1600-1000 BC,

1500 BC...Indo-European Mitanni culture....

1500 BC....The most archaic Sanskrit is that of the Vedas (1500-1200 BC)...

About 1500 BC, there was a mysterious split between the Deva and Ashura worshipping Indo-Europeans....The Deva worshipping Indo-European people migrated south-east into India while the Ashura worshipping tribes remained in the Persian regions... These people came from the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian sea. Others migrated south-east instead. Some of them stopped in Iran, while others continued south-east to Pakistan and India. The slow migration did not arrive in northern India until about 1500 BC. In India, the Indo-Europeans are usually called the Aryans.Recent genetic evidence supports the arrival of the Indo-Europeans.....In addition to their language, the Aryans brought their gods (Devas) with them to India. These gods form the basis of the Rig Veda and other sagas which were first written down in Sanskrit. They also brought the domesticated horse. The Buddha Gautama was a Prince of the Sakya tribe, one of the prominent Aryan clans in India.

1500- 1200 BC....'The appearance of the tall, light-skinned, Indo-Aryans in India around this time. Penetrate into the Panjab and Sind across the passes of the Hindu Kush mountains. They found cities like Harappa and Mohenjo, with paved streets, drainage systems, private bathrooms, and large ritual baths surmounted by great Stupas." (James: 1963..pg 68).....

1500-1200 BC...Zarathustra, Zoroaster

1450 BC...Aryan language speaking people conquer India

1400 BC...The roots of Mithraic belief are found in the worship of the Sky Goddess Mitra in northern Mesopotamia

1400 BC...Avesta composed in Avestan (an East-Iranian Language)

1400 BC.....INDO-IRANIANS...."Until the year 1400 BC, the Iranians and Hindus were still united and had several gods with similar names. One of these was Mithra." (Canney: pg 244)

1400 BC..."In Boghazkoy, the capital of the ancient Hittites in the north of the Anatolian plateau, tablets on Mithra dating from 1400 BC were discovered in 1907." (Vermaseren: 1963..pg 13)...

1400 BC...King Tutankhamon of Egypt

Another monotheistic religion, Zoroastrianism, was founded by Zarathustra about 1400 BC, give or take a few centuries. Zarathustra, being Central Asian, might have come from the area of Gora Belukha and could have been influenced by Vedic ideas from India (where Buddhism began about 500 BC) and by Taoist ideas from China (where Buddhism was cultivated). For instance, the Zoroastrian symbol Faravahar contains a central circle (Tai Ji), which has two legs (Yin-Yang, I Ching), its tail has 3 layers of feathers (3 Realms, Tai Hsuan Ching), and its wings have 5 layers of feathers (5 Elements). Perhaps the being holding a circle might represent the Original God Ahura-Mazda holding the Tao. Ahura-Mazda, represented by man, and 6 Immortal Amesha Spentas, represented by stone/sky, water, earth, plants, animals, and fire/light, make up the Zoroastrian Heptad. In addition to Ahura-Mazda, Zoroastrianism had two lesser Ahuras, Varuna and Mithra. Mithra became the bull-slaying god of pre-Christian Roman Mithraism, which was somewhat similar to the Greek Cult of Dionysus.

The Fremont culture or Fremont people is a pre-Columbian archaeological culture which received its name from the Fremont River in the U.S. state of Utah where the first Fremont sites were discovered. The Fremont River itself is named for John Charles Frémont, an American explorer. It inhabited sites in what is now Utah and parts of Nevada, Idaho and Colorado from AD 700 to 1300. It was adjacent to, roughly contemporaneous with, but distinctly different from the Anasazi culture.

1370 BC..........In a famous treaty between the Hittite ruler Suppiluliuma and the Mitanni king, Mattiwaza, about 1370 BC, the Aryan gods Mithra, Varuna, Indra and the twin Nasatyas are mentioned. Thus in the Mitanni kingdom Aryan gods were worshipped as well as Mesopotamian deities, which would indicate an Aryan element, but probably only among the rulers.

1320 BC...Assyria rises as a military power

c. 1300: Aryans migrate into the Indus Valley

1200 BC.....PHRYAIANS...(1200 BC)...Indo-European speakers who occupied central Anatolia. Chief deity was called Ma, the Great Mother." (Langer: Ency World History: 1940)...

1150 BC...Mycenaean civilization collapses in Mediterranean

1150 BC.....I-CHING...."The I-Ching appeared in its present form with 64 hexagrams during the reign of King Wen (1150 BC)..(Wilhelm: I-Ching..pg 15)

1100 BC...Migration of Medes and Persians into Western Iran (Yarshater: 1987..pg 685)...

1100-800 BC....Dark ages in Greece

1020 BC.......The Phoenicians inhabited the Mediterranean coasts, the narrow and fertile strip located between the sea and the mountains of Lebanon and Anti- Lebanon. They built numerous and powerful fleets. They also visited the north African coasts and all the European south, traded in Italy, entered the Black Sea and left the Mediterranean Sea by crossing the Pillars of Hercules (today's Strait of Gibraltar and previously called the Pillars of Melqart) reaching the Atlantic ocean's African coast, and finally arrived at the Tin Islands in England. They navigated the African continental coast in order to follow the opposite way that would be traced by Vasco da Gama much later. And more evidence seems to confirm that the Phoenicians used to cross the Atlantic Ocean to visit the "New Continent". ...They were already influential about the year 2000 BC but their power grew with Abibaal's (in 1020 BC) and Hiram's leadership. ....BRAZIL is full of vestiges that corroborate the Phoenician presence in its lands and everything indicates that they concentrated their occupation in the northeastern region.

c. 1000: Aryans migrate into Ganges Valley

1000 BC........Bactria: semi mythical empire about 1000 BC....

1000 BC....Phoenicians had standarized alphabet of 22 characters (vowell-less)

1000 BC...Zoraster in Khorezmia in Central Asia

934 B.C. (3816) Ashur-dan II establishes the Neo-Assyrian empire. The Empire unifies the Middle East, from Egypt to the Caspian Sea, under one rule and by so doing lays the foundation for the subsequent rise of the Persians, Hellenism, Christianity, and Islam. Great advances in science, technology, philosophy, medicine, and government are made. The Assyrian conquests spread civilization to formerly savage lands. This aspect of the Neo- Assyrian empire is often overshadowed by scholars' baffling preoccupation with the Assyrian military machine and its so-called "barbaric behavior". The Assyrians never conquered and destroyed, they conquered and civilized, teaching their subjects the art of the highest civilization then in existence. The cultural unification of the middle east is a subtle point to grasp, yet it must be understood that this was the greatest achievement of the Assyrians. Other achievements in that period are to numerous to list fully. Some examples are: paved roads, postal system, magnifying glass, electric battery, plumbing (with flush toilet), the first use of iron, the first chariots, the first aqueduct (which was in use until 1996 A.D.), the first library, the first system of musical notation.

900 BC....Walled Cities with central castles (kal'ah) existed in Bactria (Merv, Maracandra, Balkh)

900 BC..."The sacrificial deities, Agni and Soma, as personifications of the ritual order, effectively survived the transition from theism to pantheism in 900 BC." (James: 1963...pg 77)...

"At left is a tablet from the early 9th century B.C. which depicts the Babylonian sun-god Shamash seated on the right, holding emblems of his authority, a staff and ring, and the king with two attendants on the left. In the center, on an altar, is a large 4-point sun image, with additional small wavy rays between the points."

In 883 BC Ashurnasirpal II (Ashur = Sun Guardian) became ruler of Assyria. Assyria became more powerful, and Israel was defeated by Assyria around 722 BC.

843 C...First historical account of Persians (Parsua) near Lake Urnia...

836 BC...First historical account of Medes (Madai) in Hamadan...

The Black Obelisk dates back to 827 B.C. The Black Obelisk is a magnificent biographical monument depicting battles and other events during the reign of Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria from 858 to 824 B.C. The structure adds credence to the Bible with its mention of Jehu, the Israelite king who is written about in 1 to 2 Kings of the Old Testament. The four-sided obelisk is made of black limestone and measures almost seven feet in length. There are 190 lines of cuneiform text, and on each side, five rows of relief sculptures. 800 BC...Chaldeans recorded the movements of the sky. Beginnings of western astrology

800 BC....In Persian sources, the Scythians (8-3rd C BC) were called Saka......

8th Century BC...Homer composed Iliad

776 BC....Olympic games in Greece

753 BC...Rome founded

7th Century BC..."Aristeas of Proconnesus journeys into the Scythian territory looking for the mythical race of Hyperboreans. Peaceful, happy, vegetarian, northern mythical land.' (Piggott: 1985, pg 93)...

676 BC...In 676 BC an Assyrian raid penetrated Median territory as far as Mt Bikni (Demavend) in the district of Patusharri (Culican: 1965..pg 44)...

660 BC....SHINTO...."At first there was a long mythological period called the 'Age of the Gods', following which the goddess Ama-terasu-o-mikami descended to the lower realms, and his great grandson, Emperor Jimmu, became the first emperor of Japan in the year 660 BC....

633 BC...Great Median Kingdom of Cyaxares

630 BC..."The Sacae conquered Media and ruled for 28 years. The Saka warriors taught the Median youth to shoot the bow and to speak their language." (Rudenko: 1970..pg 225)

628-551 BC...Zarathustra launched his movement in Chorasmia (Persian Khorasan, Western Afghanistan, Turkmen Republic). (James: 1963..pg 79)...

628 BC......"Zoroaster [Zarathushtra] (628-551 BC?) was probably a priest of the old Aryan religion, for he calls himself a zaotar (Indian hotar) in the Gatas (Yasna 33.6)....He also retained the old poetic form, for the meter of his Gathas is similar to that of the Vedas. He further exalted the concept of asha, 'truth', the rta of India, and further used words in the same sense as in the Vedas."

614-550 BC...Median Empire

612 BC...Destruction of the Assyrian empire by the Medes

612 B.C. (4138) The Neo-Assyrian empire collapses under an attack by Medes, Scythians and Babylonians tribes. The Royal family escapes to Harran.

609 B.C. (4141) Ashur-uballit is proclaimed the new king of Assyria in Harran. Egypt sends its army to support the Assyrians but is delayed by Jewish resistance in Gaza and Judah. When the Egyptian army does finally arrive, it is met by a Chaldean force and is defeated. With the collapse of the Egyptian army, its final buttress, the Assyrian empire came to its end.

600 BC(?)...Zoroaster

600 BC...6th- 3rd centuries BC...Sarmatians were excellent horse warriors. Indo-Europeans northeast of Persia. Barrier was the Caucasus mountains.

588 BC......"..A figure of 258 years before the fall of the Persian empire in 330 BC was generally given as the date for the coming of Zoraster, i.e. 588 BC..."

ca. 563-483: Siddhartha Gautama Buddhism Chronology

567-486 BC....Shakyamuni Buddha

550 BC (to 331 BC)....Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus the Great

551- 479 BC...Confucius

544 BC..."It is the work of Pherecydes (544 BC) that the first literary presentation of a primordial divinity of Time (Chronos) is to be found. The divinization of an abstract concept of Time is remarkable in the religious history of the world. " (Boyce: 1982...pg 150)...

530 BC.....The Saka peoples appear North East of Iran as mounted nomads in 530 BC. Cyrus failed to subdue (and was killed) the Massagetae beyond the Oxus in 530 BC." (Phillips: 1965..pg 129)...[Sidenote: the Kalachakra initiation is never performed in the Northeast Sector of a community]....

525 BC...Persians were playing polo. Invention of the stirrup.[This has been challenged. When does the stirrup first appear?]

517 BC...Darius created the ceremonial city of Persepolis

500 B.C. (4250) The Persians ascend to power. They adopt the Akkadian writing system (Assyrian cuneiform).

500 BC...Achaemenian Kings in Media.

500 BC..."The Sacian aristocracy in 500 BC had close blood links to the Parthian nobility. Their dress was the Central Asian gown." (Rudenko: 1970..pg 89)...

500 BC.....CELTS...Indo-Europeans who emerged in South Central Europe about 500 BC....

6th Century BC....The Buddha taught in the Magachi language. Sanskrit, the more cultured language was favored by the educated elite....

5th- 3rd Centuries BC..."Bodies in the royal tombs of Pazyryk in the Altai prove that Mongols were mingling with Indo-European stock." (Hawkes: 1976..pg 178)

5th Century BC..."According to Kuznetsov, Bon was introduced to Tibet in the fifth century BC, when there occurred a mass migration of Iranians from Sogdhiana in north-east Iran to the northern parts of Tibet. They brought with them an ancient form of polytheistic Mithraism and the Araimic alphabet, named after Aramaiti, the Iranian Earth Goddess." June Campbell: "Traveller in Space"...

5th Century BC...."Herodotus adds that the Argippaie, north of the Scythians were virtuous, vegetarian peacemakers who have no warfare or weapons." (Piggott: 1985..pg 93)...

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