Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Kalachakra Text and Military Strategy


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Defeating enemies in war etc. are taught in verses 127-148. Having previously done the time and direction power calculations for the Dharma possessing lokapaalas and for conquering the hosts of others, here the actions of machines useful for that are taught. From that, in this tantra there are 7 kinds: stone-catapults etc., naaga swords, chariots, show-houses, and circle cannons, [throwers], together with water-leading machines of 12 kinds. From these teachings, 1st the need for such machines for overcoming others is taught.

As for enemies to be defeated in war, if it happens that a ruler's warriors remain in their own fortress,

outside it machines must be made. Continuously stones, and fire- arrows should descend on them.

One's own palace guards should have cutting engines with swords etc., and on the ground by performing vajra songs and rituals,

that fortress will be defeated. In a few days the hostilities will be successful.

2nd, the extensive explanation is taught in 12 parts. 1) A offensive stone-catapult is taught for a plain-fortress surrounded by warriors.

As for 4 pillars, having 8 2 cubits, that perhaps means they are 16 cubits long. They are square, with a width of 16 fingers. That is the ultimate measure of the engine. As intermediate measures there are 4 pillars 14 cubits long and 14 fingers wide. The lesser ones are 14 cubits and 14 fingers. These 4 pillars have equal holes drilled to the east and west and unequal ones to the south and north at the 8 end places, and the measure of them is 1/3 the pillars' width.

Where the holes are drilled there are gdung bu, little rails, extending places. As for these different holes, in front the rails are chu gter 4, to the right dus, 4 to the left dus, 4. To the back, in the lower part is also 1. In the back 2 pillars are 5 holes. To the east 4 are displayed. And to the south and north are 1 each show. In the 2 pillars in front are 8 holes.

As for the width of the engine, at the bottom, as for the measure of the 4 pillars of the engine, it is 10 lag pa, 10 cubits. The upper part is half that, 5 cubits. Those both are square. The bolts to be shot are less by 2 cubits than the pillars, [16 - 2 =] 14 cubits. The measure of the part above the A'PHRUL SHING, or central O LOG GCU, the propelling shaft which engages with the heads of the bolts to be shot, is 6 cubits. This length of the o log gcu is additional, not included in the base.

The center is thick and the left and right faces taper like of ox-tails. Their center is round and with half the thickness, with a measure of 2 cubits. The 2 faces are 20 fingers. The O LOG GCU’S, 2 peak points outside vases are of 30 fingers. In the central round shaft, a hole thub pa, 7, fingers long and ma nu, 14, fingers wide has been cut. In that

hole in the O LOG GCU, bolts, disregarding 1 cubit, 13 cubit ox tail forms are made. The throwing arrows should be put into that hole for propulsion. The O LOG BCU’S behind part is fastened by iron nails. It should be made stable.

In the heads of the throwing arrows with a cubit measure up to 1/3rd part 2 holes are drilled, having 2 iron a long or rings. They are round and the circumference is 60fingers. They are made of iron round rods of 6 fingers. To each of these rings 50 ropes should be tied. The upper measure of the O LOG GCU is a half circle.

At the throwing arrow end, as for the point, the finger with its tongue fully enters. The throwing arrow end gnya'a non [pressing ] round shapes height is identified as 16 fingers.

By the 2 nails the throwing arrow and the tongue are thrown. It points toward the tongue tip. 6 fingers is the tongue presser measure. It is placed in its hole up to the throwing arrow's presser together with tongue and finger. As for this finger of the throwing arrow, the slinging palm with the ropes is of a fixed size of 3 cubits.

and its leather sling palm is 24 fingers. The center thick breadth has right and left subtly taperng stages like an [ox] tail. 1/2 cubit is extra. In that throwing palm stones are put. Having strong human power those who pull it pull the ropes and, as it shoots, suddenly they will go quickly into space, and having gone they will accurately and suddenly fall on houses, roads etc. and having struck all those things the rocks will go below the ground, like a suddenly descending vajra, thunderbolt.

The finger of that machine has the shape of a half moon. On the ground between east and west a painting of Bhramaa below the fingery is equally drawn. In the left and right 2 faces of that picture at different heights are 8 stone throwing places, which are 2 stone throwing places for 8 parts of the earth right and left. As for the way of throwing stones, released from both clenched hands of persons, they should be shot and at the time of shooting, by fists of the 2 hands the stone is made to touch the earth. When it is shot to the right, the face is in the right direction. Equal feet shoot right and left. By placing the feet so that they dwell in the machine unequally to the right the stone is shot. If 1 shoots in the center, the back is straight. Do it having placed the 2 feet in the machine.

From that the stone will fall as 1 desires. By the power of going in 3 ways to right, left, or center, there will be the goal of completely overcoming the fortress of the outsiders.

Hit by these throwing stones, even an elephant will surely fall at once, not to mention smaller beings.

All the enemy army staying in the upper house of a fort will be made to fall outside.

Therefore, combatants whose fortresses are in flat places on the earth with talented archers grasping their bows cannot rival this machine.

Where such a machine has completely attacked a fort, the enemies who dwell there will come into the mouth of the lord of death. That is the explanation of the rock throwing engine for a flatland fort.

Then in the case of water-fortifications water machines of the nature of great ships are taught. Here for water machines, the thick main timbers are 6 fingers wide and 14 cubits long. Elephant-operated machines are 24 fingers. Horse operated machines are 20 fingers. Human operated ones are 16 fingers. For the 1st machine length is up to 12 cubits matched or a little more. There are garlanded? pillars and dpung pa, [literally: shoulders]. That is, the 2 are each adorned with 6 rails, and above there are also 6. Above and below in both there is equal measure, and as for the cubits of each, zung gi khar, it is 2 cubits, so that it is exactly square without more or less.

For the 6 pillars and in the rails, by each of the 2 snying po [literally heart, central ] combined they are nyi ma 12 cubits. ? Both pillars and rails are equal with neither extra or lack.

In all the individual re'u mig apertures shields are arranged facing in the same direction," and so that water will not get in, above and below, to the south, east, west, and north, everywhere at the borders of the individual shields which are covered with skin, there are water-shielding-cloths rubbed and covered with melted wax.

For an elephant machine the SNYING PO height is 3 cubits; for horses 2 1/2 cubits; For people 2 cubits. How in the center of the SNYING PO so that the water of the waves will not enter, as for 2 cubits of height, in the throat place of a great ship for entering in the middle of the SNYING PO it should be done. By the divisions of lesser, middle, and supreme SNYING PO, there are many machines. dus, of 6 cubuts a SNYING PO can be for 1 machine and similarly 8 and skyon, 18, and the SNYING PO of 3 x nyin byed, 12, = 36, but as for 1 machine, in making it, for crossing a great ocean the SNYING PO can be as much as 1,000.

Here externally there are 4 DPUNG PA and rails, to the east and to the west 2 DPUNG PA and to the south and to the north 2, that is 4 altogether and wooden pillars up to the snying po 4 GRA [corners?, row ] a'phrul pa, shields, of the dpung pa and rails' size are placed everywhere or placed in a circle. Moreover the places of the rowers except for slits should be so circled.

Behind all the machines’ 12 *?? SNYING PO are 6 oarsmen. Similarly for a great engine 12 30 and up to 100 as a limit, these oarsman directly from in front of the engine by the 2 equal DPUNG PA before and behind steer the machine, with a count as before or according with the size of the machine, up to the above limit.

Fastened in holes in the direction pillars are moving wind-cloths or sails, and fixing the sails according with their knowledge of the direction where the wind is going, by that the ship, moved by wind, will go where it is steered.

Going aboard such a ship-machine, one's troops enter into the midst of the outsiders waters to harm their sea-side forts and seize territory, and they go on the ocean. That is the explanation of a water fort warship machine.

Now destroying mountain forts. To cast burning grain oil a wind machine or fire machine is taught. Having chu gter, 4, corners making a 4 cornered square platform in the style of a shield in the center of which is a round pillar in length 3 cubits in size 2 are made in the corner of this shield cloth sails for moving air dang in length 5 bru [a measure] having 1 size together with victory banners the pillar should be made.

Left right and back and front of the shield in the corners are iron phurba points having rings and ropes tied to those rings should be tied to the head of the pillar. 3 sides of the machine above and below should be covered above and below by the strongest possible coverings. At the corners are the victory banners as explained. In the below right and left corners nails up to 2 bru [ a measure] are 3 ropes. There from the ends of the ropes combined into 1 having made it of a measure equal of that of the mountain fort. Those ropes from the direction behind the fort are taken and pulled by men and from the ground by those ropes' drawing power as for going upward, that engine moved by the wind certainly will go above the rock fort into the air.

In that machine burning oil and people with fire should go. Then, riding in the wind machine those people from that wind machine throw burning oil so that the enemy army and fort and all the people will all be burned. The fire machine is sure to overcome a mountain fortress.

On one's own fortresses sides so that others may not enter into the midst, as for a hooked knife machine of whirling swords, at the of a circle of swords at the end of the life tree, an iron made space seat 1 pointed sits in a lower hole and above [the space seat] also is a circle,

a water wheel, and water driven paddles made like a wheel, ie around the life tree are up to fingers 2 x 2 = 4 as spokes of the wheel; each spoke consists of 1 of them. The spokes also at all the round ends of the life tree completely pervasively should be established.

That wheel in diameter, as for cubits, there are 3 and 1/2; and above the space seat also there besides the wheel the life tree is placed.

At the peak above the life tree like the lower lower wheel spokes, sharp swords are put which whirl swiftly. They will cut the bodies of enemies. That machine by which it is made so that the machine's lower wheel's base turns by means of water or wind.

The Great Commentary says that the wheel of hooked knives will be understood by visualizing it. By the verses it is also completely taught. Similarly the wind machine also will be very clear, so these 2 and the tent machine are not explained in the commentary. Here description of the earlier commentaries is like the way of telling about attacking with burning oil.

At the top of the fort is placed a windmill it is taught. Driven by ropes, the wind machines go into space. As in the explanation of the previous machine, from one's own side in the direction of the enemy moving according to the stages of the wind, and with sails etc. using the wind as a special mechanical means, gradually its going above the enemies' fort and going into their individual houses is a certainty. Men having taken the measure, having pulled the ropes, that is the measure of height of the level of the mountain and having a measure of just the right amount of rope to reach to the place of the enemy, in that manner it is known or expressed. Thus having mounted in an air-going machine, by having penetrated or opened the peak of the enemy's fortress destroy it.

The fort's essential heart is presented at the peak, the enemy's houses foundations and meeting places as before, 1 should set fire to them.

That was the ascertainment of a windmill at the peak of a fort. Then a vajra tent machine is taught for destroying castle walls.

Using wheels like chariot wheels, in the upper part of iron and wood, a great tent-shaped house is set up.

Even in the intermediate directions there are shields or bucklers, and outside it is completely covered with buffalo skins in a round shape.

Pulling the machine, men move it. From all sides equally trenching in the ground, they go on circling until they complete it.

Then the men having filled that trench with earth, it is made equal. They suddenly enter the enemies' castle wall and battlements. In that way, destroying the walls or battlement-fortifications, they will have them in their power. That is the vajra tent machine. Then an armor piercing iron arrow machine is taught.

Bows etc where fixed on the ground a gdang bu or platform in width 6 fingers shoots iron arrows of the same measure. Equal to the iron arrow width measure from wa [gutter/ drain]3 to 6 those brkos carved/engraved wa [gutter/ drain] above and below left and right parts iron sticks 36 square peak to the platform by nails sealed holes in by square iron phurbas at the 2 edges and center certainly together with their strings the bow The right and left iron nails hold or bind them motionless, and then the aforementioned iron stick peak phurba stabbing phurbas nostrils should be put both on the machine and peaks.

Again on the behind part of the machine platform to the right and left are 2 iron square stabbing phurbas and in the middle of the well arrayed Propulsion shaft are connected from 2 to 6 finger-like half a'gyogs [crooked, litter, stretcher, lifter??.?]

Below an iron stick of a small hammer’s measure of 3 fingers should be placed below moving together with the phurba's ring. Above at the peak of the fingers, the bowstring should be attached. At those peaks of the fingers at the individual ends are iron arrows and strings. By that bowstring with equal strength many sharp arrows or iron arrows

At the time of war, by being shot, as well as piercing armor, having wounded the bodies of elephants it will go right through them. That is the armored elephant piercing iron arrow machine. Here as there is little extensive explanation by the commentaries, this is merely from the words of the Root Tantra. These machines cannot really be understood by the rough explanation given, and the eye of reason cannot visualize them. Nor do the earlier Tibetan commentaries say anything in detail. If we had overall sight of them, it would be easy, but since there is no way we can, it is all quite vague. Thus, having finished the explanation of the 7 outsider-conquering machines, now there are the machines for guarding one's own side. To guard a king's palace, below a sword machine is taught.

There are 2 Columns square with a width of 12 fingers, and 2 long and short squares. They go 2 cubits downwards, carved, sinking into the ground and stably placed. They are wound with ropes.

Above the earth 2 1/2 cubits are passed over. Then in left and right pillar holes a'phrul shing or rails are placed. Passing above 6 fingers ropes are firmly tied. In the center of or between 2 ropes is a sphere in which are sockets as holders for swords, with a round cavity on which are twisted ropes, twisted around many times.

Into the center of that sphere, are placed 2 sword holders. The sphere and sword holders directly penetrating to fix them motionlessly, the swords are tightly fastened by nails.

Similarly on the front 2 pillars are swords circling in the reverse direction from the previous swords in such a way that both the parts of the swords newar the points come together. Together with the nails and ropes except for the places where the swords come out, the machine should be covered by shields, so that it cannot be seen. From above, if the enemies' feet tread on the sword point tips, spontaneously move. The swords motionlessly should be tread on.

Above that the holes where the swords protrude where they come together with the perforated shields, there when anyone places their feet there, from them the swords will be pushed and go upwards.

Above the swords are the moons: the name of the rails above the sword handles is "moons." So it is taught, or perhaps it is talking about the symbols on the shields. Anyway, the measure of these rails is 6 fingers. In the center part, made of iron a treadle [very solid] should be placed for the sake of treading on the swords.

Whoever's foot is placed above the moons will suddenly be cut by the swords.

Then in the upper half of the device mirrors, wreaths, victory banners etc. are arranged.

Then kshaatriya caste warrior's chariots are taught.

For chariots 1st having made a stable life-tree, above the wooden axle whose width is 6 fingers of wood, and length nyi ma lag pa 12 cubits. by 6 east and west and 6 north and south there is a seat or place for people. Moreover above the life tree where peoples' seats or places are to be a house should be made. How? In the 8 directions and in the center equal to the measure of the chariot wheels, or 1/9th the seat square. The width of the life tree is 14 fingers. Make that into 3 parts. The center part is left alone. At the 2 end places make holes. Put wheel spokes in those holes. Fasten them to the life-tree with nails. In the round holes at their bases they turn with the wheels. At the 4 corners of that chariot 4 columns meet and are connected to the rails above and below them. The equal chariot is 1 drawn by an even number of horses etc. and the unequal chariot by horses etc. of uneven number. On the above-mentioned columns having passed over 1 part, the half part above that is the place of warriors. The drawers of equal or unequal chariots are horses or elephants. 2 4 and 6 are equal and 3 5 and 7 are unequal and the height of the chariot should be the height of the bodies of the animals that pull it.

Then the half circle place of the warriors above should be beautified by with an array of mirrors, garlands, victory banners, bells etc..

1, 2 half parts. Below the place, the place of the warriors is 1 part. The window-like hole is 1/2 part. The above stage-like window is also 1/2 part. Combined, these 2 similar features are 1 part + the 1 part of the warriors = 2. For fighting in war the place with the windows looking in the 4 directions should be made the place of the warriors and weapons. zla ba lag pa rtse mo can is 1 2 3. Above the place of the pillars' rails up to the driver's place is 1 part of 4 fingers. The fighters' places on the columns are 2 parts of 4 fingers. Above, the columns are 3 parts of 4 fingers. Above that is the place of the symbolic things, the victory banners etc.. Thus with 1 part etc. the place and individual seats' measure should be known with certainty.

In the divisions of 3 chariots, the horse drawn chariots' wheel = 2 1/2 cubits. The life-tree is a little over 4 times the measure of the wheels. The chariot ma.n.dala complete part measure twice repeated is square in the 4 directions. At the 2 ends the wheels should be of that measure. The elephant chariot is twice as big as the horse chariot. As it is explained that it has a round of 1 1/2 parts, such a sphere is the lotus chariot's place. As for establishing the divisions of the chariot of joy,

the measure of the wheels together with the 4 supports of those drawn by horse and elephant is 2 1/2 cubits."

Those of the gods are of the lotus family. Those of the sons of the gods are of the family of joy. Those of humans

With 8 and chu gter, 4, life trees and 8 wheels with life tree is a great chariot that cannot retreat from war. Below and above the 1 with has 2 life trees and 4 wheels, half those of the great chariot. The 3 chariots here are the great chariot, 1 half that size, and 1 equal half that size again with 2 wheels. The chariots of the gods have 1 wheel. The sun's chariot is also like that.

How so? The sun's supreme chariot has 1 wheel and an uneven number of 7 horses. The asuras have rnam par a'joms pa all-conquering chariots.

The kshaatriya chariots are equal and non-equal great chariots non- retreating from war.

Similarly 1 life tree and 2 wheel equal and unequal chariots, drawn by 3 yokes and 2 ropes with horses etc. pulling them, and in war able to turn around and go backwards, whether they are pressed behind, or in the above direction, or whether they conquer the enemy in front of the pullers, they equally will conquer. Thus for guarding one's own side sword machines and kshaatriya warrior chariots are taught. Then devices for theatrical entertainments are taught. Like the palaces of the gods, the nature of the moving places that lords of humans have for a show is taught.

The pillars are 20 cubits. The back is 24 fingers. There are an equal count of holes Where? 1 end of the hole has a measure of 6 cubits. The 2nd has 5. The 3rd chu gter, 4. The 4th me yi, 3. By parts to the tip of the pillar every cubit there is an equal hole. 4 similar ones are drilled. The lowest part is 13 cubits.

Above the Above the parts are half of that part or 7 1/2 cubits. By the building's storied construction they are like that. Above the assembly palace are rails 4 4 [sets of 4, 8, 16??] in the roof, like the deities' palaces.

Like the deities palaces on the ground the places of lords of humans too with triple stories are moved for the country's shows and feasts.

From cubit to cubit ni having wheels in all directions they are immense.145

The 1st story, with pillars above the externally arising rails all surrounded by shields. It is circled by 3 cubits. The 2nd story it is circled by 1 cubit. That is the ascertainment of the deities palaces and lords of humanss' houses' transported for festivals.

Now, for spring feasts, the characteristics of swift wheeled ones are taught. The previously explained chariots had 4 life trees or axles and 8 wheels, similarly with 8 wheels above which, 4 pillars of the measure of an elephant chariot pillar are inserted with the parts of the pillar tips from below to above as above explained, by their 3 stories these quick ones can circulate in all the 4 directions.

Above the rails 4 4, the 1st story in the 4 directions are 8 2, 16, platforms. On the 2nd are 8 and on the 3rd are half of that or 4. On the 1st story above are phyogs, 10, hands above the rails, and what is viewed from each direction is like the other directions. In every direction of the 2nd story are dus, 6, hands and and in every direction of the 3rd are dus, 4, supporting hands. The supports of the hands are the rails of the 3 places or stories.

for those 3 large ones, above the lower ones and below the upper ones, making a circle, [or just surrounding it?] hand-held carrying poles carried by noble and attractive youths and maidens are inserted in holes in the pillars.

The upper poles are inside and the lower ones de? las outside. By the stories they go below and above. In the 8 directions those, which move or a'khyogs pa [carry] it, are in all directions or encircle it. Those are the characteristics of the device's carrying apparatus. It is covered above and below. As for those poles, the upper ones are inside and the lower ones outside. Continuously 1 after the other all the machines have all kinds of upper stories and coverings. Now for flower gardens etc., water-leading vase-water machines are taught.

Above and below or left and right, whichever, above is right and upward and below is right and downward, having a tube like a bamboo stem, as for such a device it is carried. Corresponding 1 to another, all the machines made are in the form of pipes. The device is always a water conducting machine with square pipes.

Behind it, in the center, is a water entering hole that entering a vase shape at the tip of the pipe. The pipe tip is inserted in the vessel's mouth. Below the vase's mouth "there is also a hole of the measure of the pipe's hole.

As for vases or pipes of other shapes, along the pipe entering the machine, at its peak or half-way up or just in 2 or 3 places other tube tips are seamlessly joined 1 to another continuously, going from the water source to where the water is to be led. The hole behind the machine is made to the measure of the pipe tip entering the vase throat, and from the vase having the pipe, other pipes around the machine are placed in the water. Then when the tip of the pipe is joined to the others, the holes of the vase, are put in front of the pipe tip. Sealed so no air gets into it or into the holes of the 2 or 3 pipes etc. when another pipe is joined, hindering the vase from in front, the pipe tip hole coming into it should be stoppered with a soft plug. Then as long as the machine is full of water, if the machine's vase hole is tight, from lakes etc. the vase's inner wind breath conducts the water. The conducted water is squirted from the vase holes.

So led the water will go to flowery pleasure groves and medicinal gardens. That is the ascertainment of the machine of 10 waters. Some join a "true meaning" explanation to these devices, and though it may without great contradiction, the wise say it should not be done. Without seeing the machines with one's own eyes, the pith is uncertain, and some whose intention is easier to understand are not explained in the commentaries. Though 1 might make all kinds of explanations, the commentaries, words are unalterably brief and vague. Various changes have occurred which are not clearly taught by former gurus. Therefore, these things are suitably left alone with equanimity. Following the Root Tantra's words, or even if 1 follows the syntax loosely, these may still be explained but, if those who do not abide in the meaning have only a little of it, they should confess as much. The final summary of the teaching of machines was given as a teaching by Dharmaraaja Jampel MaƱjushrikiirti to the Bhramin Chariot of the Sun.

In supreme great Jambuling, the land where Buddha's teachings abide, to accomplish the hostile action of annihilating those on the side of harming the teachings, the Lalos etc., and for the sake of victory, possessing the Dharma,

in the supreme 1st Buddha which the Bhagavan Shaakyamuni, the guru of the 3 worlds, formerly taught to the nirmanakaaya of Vajrapaa. king Suchandra, from all this about the nature of the vowels arising in speech and about machines

From this, just a little here today in this country I am clearly teaching to you.

To guard our own land which possesses the Dharma use all these things. These things are not to be used from passion and aggression. Sun Kye. Having gained complete knowledge of Kaalachakra, that these other things should also be done is the certain command of the Bhagavan. Everything up to this point, including the outer, inner, and other places, or symbols of the 10 fold abhisheka are explained by means of 10 summaries of the Great Commentary. From here on, since it is easy to understand, no explanation is made in the commentary.

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